Erving Goffman is an essential sociologist whose dramaturgical viewpoint on social presentation and interaction of the self is classical in sociology. Nevertheless, social presentations and interaction of the self happen progressively more online. Goffman’s viewpoint is, unluckily, confined to one-on-one interaction. Nevertheless, social interaction on the internet is not without problems to deduce as social interaction as the notion is comprehended by Goffman, where the interactants promptly are existent before every other. Goffman is well related to social interaction on synchronous mass media instead of asynchronous.

According to Goffman, the equal impact of persons upon each other’s activities when in each other’s physical existence. When two or more people are in the prompt existence of a person leaves an imprint for an observer. People, briefly, exempt imprints. Goffman makes a peculiarity between imprints given and imprints gave off. Imprints given entails oral signs or their alternatives and are foremost deliberate. Imprints given off are such as an array of activities that others may consider as suggestive of the player and maybe both unintended and intended. The last embrace non-verbal communication, that is, physical advent, gesture, facial expressions, body movement, and tone of voice and have a more contextual and theatrical kind. Goffman contended that imprints given off are less manageable then imprints given.

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As people give and show imprints, they, as a result, present their selves. According to Goffman, they consider it critical to exhibit a self that is recognized by the spectators they are in front of. When people get into the presence of one another they concurrently exhibit a definition of the situation and infer the definition of the situation shown by others. Jointly, they try to institute a sole basic definition of the situation. Goffman contended that people desire their social life to flow easily minus faux pas and intrusion and, thus, adjust to formerly instituted social roles and routines. In respect to that, Goffman’s scrutiny deals with how social order is replicated and upheld in social interaction.

Similarly, Goffman asserted that vocal and bodily behavior gets consistent through socialization, and talked in regards to social ritualization. The late Goffman, who was really fascinated in mass media, examined the ritualization of gender elements in magazine advertisements where he made a division between episodes from actual life and how they are reflected in advertisements. Goffman said that rituals in business settings are hyper-ritualization and amplification of the rituals from actual life. Moreover, he claimed that in both real life and advertisements we are absorbed in intriguing stances, in externalization, but in life, we are, additionally, stuck with a significant amount of leaden recording.  It is the erasure of actual life that lies behind the notion of hyper-ritualization.

According to Whiteside and Kelly (2016) socialization is essential in the course of forming personality. Whereas more of the personality is as a consequent of our genetic factor, the process of socialization may mold it in specific directions by inspiring particular attitudes and beliefs besides selectively offering experiences. This very probable tales for more of the dissimilarity amid the usual personality kinds in one society as compared to another.

Effective socialization may lead to consistency in society. If every kid gets the same socialization, it is probable that they will share the same expectations and beliefs. This actuality has been a powerful inspiration federal governments globally to regiment education and makes it obligatory for all kids (Chaudhry and Loewenstein, 2019). Choosing what things will be instructed and how they are instructed is a strong political implement for controlling individuals. Those who adopt the customs of society are less probable to breach the decree or to want dramatic social changes. In every, nonetheless, there are people who do not adhere to culturally designated norms of regularity since they were unusually socialized, which is to imply that they have not adopted the customs of society. These individuals are normally considered by their society as nonstandard or even psychologically incapacitated.

Garner (2016) denotes that the size of NASA, which was at 367,600 contracted workers in 1965, made continuous communication mandatory. To uphold communication failures and successes, NASA took up a culture of transparency. Weekly meetings were established to offer feedback and hear suggestions from everybody in his department, ignoring hierarchy. The discipline of regular communication ensured that problems were addressed promptly, suggestions could be provided and even cultured a healthy attitude toward conflict. With the comprehending that failure and risk were conventional in their work, people were offered an environment in which these things could be discoursed fairly.

The culture of communication at NASA was one contributing aspect to the occurrences that surrounded the choice to launch in the look of information that proposed to wait for improved conditions.


Chaudhry, S. J., & Loewenstein, G. (2019). Thanking, apologizing, bragging, and blaming: Responsibility exchange theory and the currency of communication. Psychological Review126(3), 313–344. (Supplemental)

Garner, J. T. (2016). It’s Not What You Know: A Transactive Memory Analysis of Knowledge Networks at NASA. Journal of Technical Writing & Communication36(4), 329–351.

Whiteside, B., & Kelly, J. (2016). The presentation of self in the classical ballet class: dancing with Erving Goffman. Research in Dance Education17(1), 14–27.

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