For one to answer a research question posed in the given topic of study, the researcher should be in a position to collect data from all the cases. This implies that a sound technique for data collection is required as well as sampling design that will be chosen. It is important since it helps in collecting the data and information needed by the researcher. This paper is, therefore, going to present the data collection and sampling design that will be applied for the research topic chosen, that is, the effect of technology in the nursing facility.

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Summary of the research problem

Technology is defined as the application of skills and knowledge.  In the health sector, technology is defined as the application of skills and knowledge that helps in medication and vaccination of patients correctly and in a manner that saves time and an accurate manner (  Weaver et al. 2017). Since the introduction of technology, many fields and sectors have improved. This is because technology saves time and makes communication faster. It has helped the health sector since the doctors can keep records of their patients in the computer which is accurate and can be relied on. Before the introduction of technology, the health care providers used to keep the records of their customers manually which was not reliable. With the introduction of technology, health care providers are now able to provide medications accurately and vaccines. The health sector has therefore been able to grow and has also been able to save the lives of many people with the use of technology(Mettler, 2018). There has been a lot of researches conducted on the effects of technology in the health sector in general.However, the effect of technology in a nursing facility has not to be investigated which creates a gap that needs to be filled. This, therefore, is a million-dollar question and it has forced me to need to understand the effects of technology in the public sector, specifically in the nursing facility.

Research objectives

 General objective.

The general objective of the study is to investigate the effects of technology in the health sector, specifically in the nursing facility,

Specific objectives.

To investigate how technology affects culture in nursing

To establish how technology affects the satisfaction of patients in nursing.

To determine how technology affects the literacy level of both the patients and health providers in nursing.

Research Questions

How does culture contribute to the effects of technology in nursing?

How does a patient’s satisfaction contribute to the effect of technology in nursing?

How does the literacy level for both the patients and health providers affects the effect of technology in a nursing facility?

Sampling design

Sampling design is a function in mathematics that gives the researcher the probability of any sample that is given being drawn. A sample is a small representation of the whole population. Sampling is the foundation of most research projects since it is essential in carrying out the research. During sampling, there has to be a procedure to be followed. The sampling procedure is a part of the statistical practice that involves selecting individuals or observations that should be included in the sample(Moule,2016).

Target population

The target population is the list of elements from which the sample is drawn. However, the target population might also refer to the entire group of individuals, people or objects having observable characteristics.  For my research, the target population will be approximately 200 inclusive of the manager in a nursing facility, the nurses and the patients in the nursing facility.

Sample size

Sampling design is a function in mathematics that gives the researcher the probability of any sample that is given being drawn. A sample is a small representation of the whole population. Sampling is the foundation of most research projects since it is essential in carrying out the research(Boddy, 2016).During sampling, there has to be a procedure to be followed. The sampling procedure is a part of a statistical practice that involves selecting individuals or observations that should be included in the sample. Sampling size is done to generate some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for statistical references. Sampling aims to use a procedure that will yield a quality sample that represents the whole population. Sampling is also important as it helps one understand some features or attributes of the whole population by the use of the small part of the population. 

This is possible because the small sample size is taken normally portrays the same characteristic of the entire population. Many scholars consider the use of 30% of the total target population as a sample size due to its good representative ability.

Sampling method/design

In my research, the sampling design that will be used will be stratified random sampling whereby a representative sample will be obtained from the target population from which it will be drawn will not constitute a similar group. In this method, the population will be grouped into several collections known as strata whereby they all possess similar characteristics. After this is done, a sample will be selected randomly.This kind of sampling method is important since it helps in offering great precision and also it requires a smaller sample as compared to other sampling methods (Taherdoost, 2016). This then helps in saving time as well as money. Besides, as the name suggests, it does not require a lot of procedures since sampling can be done randomly.

 Data collection method

The primary data for this research will be collected through the use of administrating questionnaires to the respondents. This kind of collecting data is chosen because questionnaires help the researcher in capturing the information pertaining to the respondent. The questionnaire will capture information such as age, gender and the level of education. The names of the respondents can be excluded for confidentiality.  The questionnaires will be given using ‘drop and pick later’ method. This means that the papers containing the questions will be given to the chosen respondents and fill in the information required and then returning them as soon as they are done. Also, the questionnaire will take both open and closed-ended questions to enable effective data collection. A minimum of 10 questions will be contained in the questionnaire to help in saving time (Flick, 2017).

One of the reasons why the questionnaire will be used in contacting the participants is because they are generally inexpensive as compared to other methods and also the fact that they are practical. This helps in obtaining first-hand information apart from being inexpensive, they are a practical way to collect data and obtain information (Krosnick, 2018). This is so because the can be targeted to the groups of the researchers’ choice and as well ca be managed in many ways that one desires to use. The researcher can pick and choose the questions asked as well as the format, that is whether to use open-ended or multiple-choice hence offer a chance to collect a huge amount of data on the topic of study chosen by the researcher.Questionnaires are also important because they help in assessing data easily and are easy to visualize. This explains why this method is chosen to conduct the research.

Data collection instrument

For the research to be successful the there has to be the use of an instrument or a tool. A research instrument is a tool used to collect, measure, and analyze data related to your subject. A research instrument refers to the techniques that are used to collect data. This includes tests, scales and surveys. As for this research, a test will be used in conducting the research. A researcher should ensure that there is the use of validity and reliability during the research because they help in evaluating the measurement tool. Many researchers have suggested the use of different combinations of the pre-test or pilot study methods. As for this research pilot study is going to be employed. A pilot study is a minor study that is used in designing a study that requires further confirmation (Rodrigues et al 2018).  The study has various purposes for its use like testing the procedures of the study, the validity of the tool used, estimation of the rate of recruitment and finally the estimation of parameters like the variance of the outcome variable to calculate the sample size.

The type of study is chosen because it will help in testing the safety of the medical treatments in the nursing facility through the preclinical trials on the number of the participants chosen. It will, therefore, help in obtaining accurate results during the research A pilot study will be undertaken to discover any possible problem related to the design of the questionnaire in term of the degree of clarity and validity. The pilot study also helps in the identification of the errors and faults in the questionnaires. When this is identified, suitable adjustments can be made in the study hence making the study error-free and accurate. since the method of collecting data is through the use of questionnaires, the instrument will be designed by asking questions.

  Questionnaires are a set of questions that are written on the paper with spaces provided that the respondents or participants will use in responding to the questions posed. The questionnaires for the research will, therefore, be designed by printing the papers and giving them to the respondents. The study will be essential as it will help in identifying how technology in nursing facility affects the performance of the patients, the culture and literacy level in the nursing facility.

Validity and reliability of the instrument.

For the topic of study to be addressed, the instrument chosen should be able to provide accurate results and reliability such that it can be revisited any time by any scholar or any person that would wish to obtain information pertaining how technology affects the health sectors, specifically the nursing facility. The data collected should, therefore, be valid and reliable. Validity refers to the extent to which a test chosen by the researcher can measures what one desires to measure, The instrument will, therefore, be presented for review by the person in charge who will then be able to know whether the data collected is valid and reliable or not. This is hence the degree to which the questionnaire gives enough coverage of the topic of study chosen by the researcher. 

The validity of data will be determined through a pre-test method, whereby the instrument will be dispersed to a small percentage of the real sample. This will be done to verify therelevance of the study, availability and reliability of the information that is requested. After that is done, correspondence will be tested through comparing the findings from the questionnaires with the findings obtained from the secondary sources, such as magazines, journals and books. If the instrument provides results that are consistent throughout the research, it is therefore considered valid.

Reliability, on the other hand, refers to the correctness and strictness of measurement procedures. Two separate administration of the same instrument.The purpose of this test is to explore whether there is a relationship between the two results. There could be a high correlation or a low correlation. High correlation proves the reliability of the instrument whereas a low correlation shows that the reliability of the instrument is at a low level and therefore needs to be looked at by the researcher. For this purpose, the questionnaires will be dispersed to the same sample twice over some weeks. The purpose of doing this is to test whether the data is reliable or not. The researcher will then test for rationality by undertaking a correlation analysis of the various independent variables and the dependent variable.

 Correlation is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables fluctuate. A positive correlation shows the extent to which those variable increase or decrease in parallel and a negative correlation indicates the extent to which one variable increase as the other decreases. The reliability and validity of data will, therefore, help in this study as it will help in identifying whether the variables mentioned in the research questions affects the technology in a nursing facility, that is, culture, literacy level and the level of satisfaction for the patients.

Ethical implications

In nursing and health sector, the code of ethics states that the rights of a patient are the primary factors in any decisions regarding personal information needs to be considered and respected by the health-care providers. The research entails human participation. This implies that when research is being conducted, it should be done in a manner that the dignity of the participants, safety and their rights are respected(Cherry& Jacob, 2016).The reason for this is to ensure that during the research no participant feels like their rights and dignity have been misused and not considered. For the participantsthat call for confidentiality should also be respected because it is just about getting information and therefore everyone has the right to make and the decision that suits them. This principle has formed the basis of ethically accepted clinical and epidemiological research for decades(McBride et al. 2018).

Over the past few years’ nurses and health, providers have been considered the most genuine and honest ethical professors. This is done majorly to maintain the privacy and information that they have involving their patients. However, there has been a change recently as many patients have been raising issues concerning their privacy and information being disrespected. This is not ethical as there are patients that do not like some individuals knowing about their conditions and it also lowers the dignity and self-esteem of the patients.  Advances in medicine, technology health-care, and some other issues have transformed and keep on transforming on the ways healthcare is delivered. This, therefore, means that ethics is an important consideration.

 Technology in the nursing facility has helped especially the nurses and health-care providers in improving the communication and collaboration of their fellows world-wide.  This has a great impact since the health-care providers and nurses get to connect and exchange information practices and ideas that they need in their field. However, this can bring to question on the privacy of the patients, that is whether the nurses can keep it a secret or share it as well to their fellow nurses through the use of technology. In my research, there are some of the ethical concerns that are likely to arise, this may include protection of the rights of the patient, some of the nurses or health care providers are not likely to protect the rights of the patients which is the main challenge since the patients are likely to be affected in terms of their dignity and self-esteem (Peter,2018). This can be seen when they are denied access to their new-born babies for the women that gave birth, the use of abusive languages and charging them more than what should be paidfor their bills. There is also an aspect of informed consent to treatment, that is the inability of the nurses to use the proper treatment method that is well advanced as compared to their way of treating them due to lack of information. This is a big challenge as it leaves the facility in an analog manner and the facility will always be lagging. Besides, the lack of information misleads the health-care providers in carrying out their day-to-day activities

Furthermore, there is an anticipation of the patientsnot being able to be staffed well. That is a lot of congestion in one facility that worsens the situation of some of the patients instead of improving the condition of the patients. This mostly happens as a result of ignorance by the management on adopting better ways of staffing their patients such that congestion is minimized. This is unethical since some of the diseases are spread through the air. Therefore, the patients and nurses will be at a high risk of contracting diseases.

Lastly, there is likely to be dishonesty in the research that will be carried out. This is because some of the individuals tend to lie in terms of giving information all in the name of keeping their information secret and confidential.  This is mostly done by the doctors to their patients with the aim of not revealing to them the conditions discovered in them or their results. It is not ethical since the patients have a right to know how they are faring on as well as the information that is needed is for research and not for any other purpose. 


Technology is one of the vast factor affecting various fields. In the health sector, it is important to note that technology is essential in terms of ensuring that the patients are well medicated, the use of vaccines that are correct and also the use of technology helps in saving time. Technology in the nursing facility should, therefore, be encouraged.


Boddy, C. R. (2016). The sample size for qualitative research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal.

Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. R. (2016). Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, & management. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Flick, U. (Ed.). (2017). The Sage handbook of qualitative data collection. Sage.

Krosnick, J. A. (2018). Questionnaire design. In The Palgrave handbook of survey research (pp. 439-455). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

McBride, S., Tietze, M., Robichaux, C., Stokes, L., & Weber, E. (2018). Identifying and addressing ethical issues with the use of electronic health records. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(1).

Mettler, M. (2016, September). Blockchain technology in healthcare: The revolution starts here. In 2016 IEEE 18th international conference on e-health networking, applications and services (Healthcom) (pp. 1-3). IEEE.

Moule, P., Aveyard, H., & Goodman, M. (2016). Nursing research: An introduction. Sage

Peter, E. (2018). Overview and summary: Ethics in healthcare: Nurses respond. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(1).

Rodrigues, A. B., Cunha, G. H. D., Aquino, C. B. D. Q., Rocha, S. R., Mendes, C. R. S., Firmeza, M. A., & Grangeiro, A. S. D. M. (2018). Head and neck cancer: validation of a data collection instrument. Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 71(4), 1899-1906.

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Sampling methods in research methodology; how to choose a sampling technique for research. How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research (April 10, 2016).

Weaver, P., Jansen, L., Van Grootveld, G., Van Spiegel, E., & Vergragt, P. (2017). Sustainable technology development. Routledge.

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