Educational Policies/Social Issues
A) Define the problem;
Since the attack on the world trade Center and the pentagon on September 11, 2001, the racial discrimination has been on the rise in the United States. This is particularly true with reference to the Muslims living in America. Furthermore, it is quite ironic to note that no comprehensive programs have been introduced to cut down the trend of racial discrimination against the Muslims, in fact, on the contrary, it is believed by many that quite a few statuary laws have been introduced with the sole purpose of targeting Muslims. The Muslims have become isolated and they feel that they are being treated unfairly. In the course of the ill-exercise of the perceptions of partisanship, nationalism and patriotism, disagreement has been considerably constrained, and members of Muslim community have been victims of mistreatment. The harassment on the constitutional rights and liberties of a number of American nationals, immigrants, as well as, guests, simply because they appear to be Asian is quite appalling to say the least.
B) Social Research: Statistical data.
The Year 2001
In 2001, so far as the Muslims in America are involved, majority of them had started living under martial law. Before the attacks on 9/11, the custom had been to approve only the “Immigration and Naturalization Service” (INS) to implement the convoluted American law of immigration, which involved detailed understanding, as well as, knowledge. However, it is quite apparent that in order to record immigration information concerning chosen (Muslims) groups into the database of the “National Criminal Information Center” and permit district police to seize alien nationals had produced newborn tribulations for the Muslim community living in America. On 17 September 2001, six days after the attacks on the World trade Center and Pentagon, short-term INS regulation augmented the phase of administrative imprisonment for non-citizens from 24 hours to a maximum of 48 hours, subsequent to which they might be unconfined or detained under “unusual conditions.” Several thousand immigrants, generally young Arab men, and specifically Muslims, had been cross-examined even though there had not been any indication of their correlation with the 9/11 attacks. A report by the Human Rights Watch recorded anti-Muslim, as well as, anti-Arab hate offenses, together with murder, attack, arson and defacement, in the United States instantly after the attacks on 9/11 (Jay, 1998).
The Year 2002
The year 2002 had also been a rough year for the Muslims. Muslims had become extremely concerned about the high-level of racial crimes being committed against them. It had been quite sad to note that more than 60,000 individuals, with Muslim backgrounds, had been negatively affected by the rigid actions of the American government. The number of racial discrimination incidents that took place against the Muslims had increased by more than 50% when compared with the preceding year (Elaine, 2004).
Once again, the year 2003 had been a depressing year for the Muslims of America. The number of reported racial crimes committed against them had increased by 15% totaling to 602 hate crimes. The Muslims had been consistently complaining about the increase of harassment in every sphere of life. This increase in racial crimes against the Muslims had been occurring because of the consistent anti-Muslim propaganda being broadcasted throughout the mainstream American media. This slandering and defamation of Islam and Muslims is being carried out mainly by conservative political leaders. It is quite apparent that the Muslims have never been subject to such discrimination and have never had such a rigid experience of racial discrimination (Elaine, 2004).
The Year 2004
The year 2004, like all previous years, saw a dramatic increase of hate crimes along with the prejudiced profiling by the law enforcing agencies that had been committed against the Muslims. It is estimated that racial crimes had more than doubled since last year and there seemed to be no end to the prejudice they had been facing since the attack on September 11 (Elaine, 2004).
C) Using Applied Social Research: The history of the problem
The total number of Muslims living in America is totaled to approximately six million. Initially the Muslims immigrated to the United States in the 1870s. Primarily, they emigrated from the Islamic World which constitutes fifty seven independent countries. At present, the total population of the Muslims in the World is in excess of 1.5 billion. There are 22 Arabic countries, out of the 57 Muslim countries, which separate themselves on the basis of language, history and culture (Grand and. Erdmans, 1994).
It is quite appalling to note that during the 1991 “desert storm operation” carried out against the Iraqi dictatorial regime, the Arab-Americans in particular, and Muslim-American in general confronted mistreatment, insult and discrimination. To begin with, they had to put up with mocking for example “towel skulls,” as well as, “camel jockeys” subsequently Muslims in general and Arabs in particular, became victims of heinous hate crimes (Grand and. Erdmans, 1994).
The discrimination in the average American mind is that the Muslims are either oil-rich billionaires or fanatics and fundamentalists. One must also view that Islam appeared as a new tradition of religious values and an instrument of racial righteousness in the Afro-American understanding. In 1930, the “Nation of Islam” started in Detroit as a minute Black-separatist Islamic association headed by W.D. Fard, who only four years later was considered to be casualty of police violence. Elijah Muhammad, his descendant, guided the Black American Muslim community until the year of 1975. The objectives of the faction had been to stop racial aggression, police violence and racial autonomy; equal opportunity, as well as, impartiality for all Blacks and Whites; Elijah Muhammad’s volumes presented strong messages for the Black Muslims’ rights and progress. These volumes involved the fights against the anti-colonial in Asia, as well as, Africa and provided encouragement for the “Black Force” movement. Subsequently, Malcolm X digressed from the familiarized direction when the old guards’ program gave the impression to be cowardly and unimaginative. In addition to that, Louis Farrakhan guided a revitalized Nation of Islam, authorized the first ever Black presidential contender in the year 1984, and structured the “Million Men March,” in the year 1995 (Jay 1998).
D): Expert and Scholarly Opinion
Politicians, lawyers, teachers, social workers, as well as, several other experts from all spheres of life have called for an end to the racial and prejudice discrimination against the Muslims. To these experts, the restoration of civil liberties is the only solution to the present fiasco. These experts believe that in a democracy there is a concentration of the authority and power of the government into a plain majority. This, evidently, has been the system of government which the adversaries of the American republic have been in quest of enforcing on the American people. It is quite apparent that America has been slowly but gradually gliding into this system, through sinister, conspiracy, and sedition so as to completely obliterate a nation that had been the jealousy and replica for the entire enlightened humanity. To these experts, the revival of civil liberties will not only put America on the right path of mutual growth and development of the American society, but also pave way for normalization of public prejudice and gradually put an end to the racial crimes being committed against the Muslims (Richard and Greg, 2003; Elaine, 2004; Muqtedar, 2002; Jay, 1998).
E): Innovated Models
It is quite ironic to note that since September 11 legislations and regulations that have been passed by the American congress have significantly affected the civil liberties of all Americans, and the Muslims in particular. Racial crimes against the Muslims have been on the rise and have touched unprecedented numbers. However, there has been no attempt either by the government or by the American Muslims to bridge the gap between Islam and the West by clarifying the misconceptions that have emerged after the terrorist attacks. Where on one hand, several Muslim, as well as, Human rights groups have recorded the post-September 11 procedures that have undermined constitutional and civil rights of the Muslims under the umbrella of the security and the “war against terrorism,” hardly any Muslim organization has stepped up and channelized its resources towards clarifying their religion and nationality. Also, it is quite sad to note that no group or association has tried to start a program in a significant way, which would enlighten the American students about the cultural and ethnic values of the Muslims and the Arabs. Therefore, in light of the above evidence it is imperative for not only the preservation and growth of American values within the American society, but also for improving the image of United States in the larger world that it is not anti-Islamic or anti-Arab, that the United States funds educational programs that serve to bridge the social and cultural gap between the American-Muslims and the American youth (Elaine, 2004).
F): Give detail description of my own recommendations.
Aim of the Program
The program aims to educate the youth about the Muslims art, culture and traditions so as to end the racial prejudice that have grown after the September 11 attacks.
Strategies to successfully implement the Program
Introduce educative programs so as to organize and enlighten the American Youth so as to develop their perceptive of their civic responsibilities.
Introduce programs that assist students develop admiration and broadmindedness towards others, their moral and religious values, aesthetic understanding and compassion.
Benefits of the Program
It is apparent that misinterpretation and misperception about the Muslim culture and ethnicity has justified the disinclination of teachers to risk interfering with the Muslim heritage in the classrooms. Muslim ethnicity deals with the tradition and history of successive Muslim generations. The culture of the Muslims is the thoughts, traditions, as well as, art of the present generation of Muslims. The Muslim culture has not been motionless instead it has been in an active environment of social life. The educational program will clearly differentiate amid the Muslim culture and ethnicity so as to maintain and protect their ethnic characteristics while liberating them to show their culture to the American society in their own way.
When these educational programs are put into action, the American youth can turn out to be more aware and sensitive about the cultures and norms of the Muslims. Cultural relativity will be the most logical result. Teachers will gain many insights into the nature of the Muslim culture and civilization. Ultimately, this educational program will offer exceptional measures to eradicate prejudice against the Muslims and serve as a foundation in promoting admiration for racial and ethnic diversities.
This educational program will also assist the youth in acknowledging stereotypes, prejudice, as well as, racial and hatred crimes carried out hostile to the Muslim-Americans. Students will be taught new behaviors in which to dismiss stereotypes and avoid prejudice and racial crimes hostile to others, particularly the Muslim-American population. Students will have a widened admiration for the cultures and traditions of the Muslim-American population.
G): Cost Issues
How does the Congress fund the Program
The United States Department of Education (ED) has been giving approximately $35 to $40 billion grants every year. This year the United States Department of Education (ED) will give $36 billion in grants to the states as well as, the districts. These grants are basically formula-based grants, which mean that their primary objective is to serve students and the teachers in solving their existing complex problems. However, it has been a widely known fact that the grants given out to the educational institutions by the American Government have never been properly utilized. These grants are either spent in areas where there is either no urgent need or areas where some vested interest is apparent.
Therefore, it is imperative that the congress reviews its educational spending and diverts its under-utilized or badly utilized resources on educational programs that serve to end the racial prejudice against the minorities.
Direct and Indirect Costs
The Direct and Indirect Costs associated with this program have been listed in the table chart below. These costs are realistic and essential for accurate and well-organized management of the Federal funding. Furthermore, they are endorsed and not banned under any State or district law and regulation. In addition, these costs have been constant with guiding principles, policies, and measures that pertain to both Federal grants, as well as, other LEA actions. Likewise, special notice has been given to ensure that no cost has been allocated to a Federal grant having the status of a direct cost if the related cost sustained for the similar function has been billed to the Federal grant having the status of an indirect cost. In addition, all costs, direct and indirect, have been verified in reference to commonly acknowledged accounting principles. Lastly, these costs have been totally priced to an individual Federal grant and are the net of all relevant acknowledgments
Table 1. Cost Analysis Estimates
Estimated Total Direct Costs
Estimated Total indirect Costs
Estimated Cost Per Student
Estimated Total Program Cost
The American values advocate democracy, social equality and freedom. The American people do not think that any race, culture or sect should take no notice of the popular force and infringe and undermine individual freedom (George, 2004).
The American values advocate internationalism. The American people want to move forward with this global village with high hopes of mutual growth and development (George, 2004).
The American values advocate equity. Americans support the principle that everyone has been created equal and should enjoy similar rights. This consists of women, as well as, men of all cultural and religious communities living in America. In fact, there are laws that safeguard the “right to parity” in its diverse shapes (George, 2004).
The American values advocate solidarity. The American people stand for and with all the underprivileged and the barred. In spite of enormous disinformation millions go up against unfair, unlawful, wicked conflicts (George, 2004).
The American values advocate diversity. Americans stand for a stop to racial discrimination aimed at migrants and inhabitants of different color. The Americans advocate an end to oppression both at home, as well as, overseas. The Americans have been a society well-off in diversity. Americans rejoice diversity and acknowledge the restrictions of anyone’s viewpoint. The Americans value their country’s diversity and endeavor to reproduce that diversity by offering a full variety of services and resources to the different communities that are a part of the American society (George, 2004);
The American values advocate justice. The Americans stand against political, economic, and cultural establishments that encourage a rat race frame of mind, huge economic and power disparities, sexual, racism, and gender social structures (George, 2004).
All in all, the American values advocate a global order whose economic, political, as well as, social organizations promote harmony, foster equality, get the most out of community and government involvement, rejoice diversity, as well as, support complete and real democracy (George, 2004).
Power / Interest
It is quite apparent that the Republican Party has won the election 2004. Therefore, in order to make the congress provide the necessary funds for educational policies that teach young people about Arabs, Muslims, prejudice against both with federal funding, it is imperative that the Republican Party is on our side. It is necessary for the Republican Party to note that the “clash of civilization” is not amid the Eastern countries and the Western countries, however, it is amid democratic freedoms and secularism, on one hand, and dictatorial religious radicalism, together the repression of rebels, on the other hand. If the Republicans can see the world from this perspective, there is a resemblance amid the constricted ideas of ‘religious’ fanatics, whether they are Muslims or not, and the certified American prejudice after September 11 attacks.
Democracies are a system of life, not a simple sporadic process of choosing a government. The essence of democracy lies in the reflection and application of untying the minority who route to terror from the numerous who make use of their right to be different from certified guiding principles. Freedom of speech has been a precious quality for permitting both individual articulateness and a guide for non-violent swapping of thoughts. Disagreement by means of nonviolent ways is a democratic apparatus for social transformation, which the law enforcers ought not to repress. The United States ought to carry on recognizing the well-grounded legitimacy of the appropriate procedures. All in all; migrants, refugees, and even citizens from Muslim-American, Arab-American, Middle Eastern, as well as, South Asian countries should not put up with the impact of ill-treatment and discrimination (Richard and Greg, 2003).
The racial discrimination is not an issue that can be resolved by applying effortless transformation. Instead, solutions will most certainly come from augmented understanding, awareness and appreciation, pledge from the government and the various communities to not only recognize the predicament but work in the direction of dealing with it, and extensive supportive and accommodating endeavors from all stakeholders in American society to make a determined attempt to end racial discrimination in America.
No longer should racial discrimination be blindly acknowledged as “common” in diverse societies, with little concern for the influence on the minority groups in America, particularly Muslim-American. No longer should the enormous federal donation to the education system be misused or underutilized by educational institutions. No longer should teachers stand lazily when thousands of students are becoming victims of racial discrimination. It is fair to say that solutions will not be straightforward and uncomplicated, but as a Great Nation, the American society cannot allow not to deal with the issue of racial prejudice existing in the society. The discrimination against Muslim-Americans is factual, and it should be tackled for the good of the social fabric of the American Society and for the good of the American Nation.
Elaine Cassel. The War on Civil Liberties: How Bush and Ashcroft Have Dismantled the Bill of Rights. Lawrence Hill Books. 2004.
George Soros. The Bubble of American Supremacy: Correcting the Misuse of American Power. NewYork, Public Affairs. 2004.
Grand Rapids, W.B. Erdmans. Muslims in America. Trenton, New Jersey, Africa World Press. 1994.
Jay a. Sigler. The Arabs. Civil Rights in America: 1500 to the Present, ed. Detroit, Gale. 1998.
M.A. Muqtedar Khan. American Muslims: Bridging Faith and Freedom. Amana Publications; 1st edition. 2002.
Richard C. Leone, Greg, Jr. Anrig. The War on Our Freedoms: Civil Liberties in an Age of Terrorism. 2003.
Educational Policies/Social Issues
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