Children enrolled in school at a tender age while exhibiting diverse mathematical skills, knowledge and opportunities to excel in mathematics. Research indicates that students exposed to early mathematics in their earliest years are far more likely to experience academic success. According to Clements D. H, et al. (2011), interventions on the current teaching system enhance mathematical knowledge to primary school children, which sticks with them to later years. Academic gaps among children from low SES backgrounds tend to exhibit significantly lower levels of mathematical understanding. Given that children enter school carrying different experiences in mathematics and children who have low mathematics understanding at school entry continue to perform below peers throughout school, schools choose to intervene early in mathematics. To have the most significant impact on mathematic achievement for students who require supplement instruction or intervention, educators must understand features of effective interventions across each of the early numeracy domains (Clement, 2011). The effectiveness of early numeracy interventions may differ according to variables such as student’s age or specific numeracy content. The purpose of this proposed action research study is to focus on the following question: What is the effectiveness of early numeracy interventions in primary grades?

Review of the Literature

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Effective reading programs for secondary students
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Pre-school Mathematical Development

The development of knowledge in the mathematical domain commences early in the children’s life, way before they enter formal education. Early numeracy skills are achieved at this point. According to Malofeeva et al. (2004), the skills require understanding numbers and their relations with other numbers. Researchers argue that children pose a small degree of numerical understanding in their infant years, capable of remembering and discriminating between small sets of items. The capability brings the realization that, indeed, there exists some capability of understanding numbers during the pre-linguistic development stage. According to Clements & Sarama (2009), 2 to 3-year-old children may randomly chant any part of a word sequence without a particular sequence. The phenomenon expresses itself when infants gain the capability of verbally expressing their understanding of mathematical content.

The learning process continues, and by the age of 3 to 5 years, children gain the ability to accurately and instantly decipher groups of four objects (Clements & Sarama, 2009). The phenomenon is called subitizing and is an indication of advancement in the development of numeracy skills.

Continual interaction with the environment promotes informal understanding of mathematical knowledge. The informal knowledge provides the building ground for advancing formal knowledge in the next education level, making them great predictors of future mathematical knowledge. Typically, the capability of verbal counting is developed in the preschool years under the home environment. They are necessitating the need for a conducive learning environment for the development of numeracy skills. Children entering kindergarten with a deficiency in numeracy skills exhibit poor performance in mathematics throughout elementary school. This premise lays the importance of the development of preschool mathematical knowledge.

Pretesting and Progress Monitoring

A critical element of providing effective numeracy intervention in primary schools is by administering screening and benchmark testing. Research clearly states that administering pretests, such as the ENT-R evaluations, which assess math prerequisites, counting, and estimation skills by evaluating nine different mathematical components, helps immediately detect students who manifest mathematical difficulties. These pretests are essential and greatly benefit the execution of numeracy intervention. The components include comparison components such as; seriation, numeral usage, classification, resultative counting, estimation, correspondence, shortened and synchronized counting, and generally understanding of numbers. (Sylke et al., 2012). By implementing such pretests, educators are given an overview of each child’s results, which ultimately helps guide their instruction in the classroom and organize their intervention program. Missing numbers, quantity discrimination, number identification have the most potential when used as measures for evaluating first-grade and kindergarten grasp of mathematics (Lembke & Foegen, 2009). Pretesting also helps determine which students fall below a norm score of 50 and captures students’ early number sense (Lembke & Foegen, 2009). Educators can then plan and organize accordingly by creating a profile for each student, having their strengths and areas of need in mind. Ongoing progress-monitoring of students’ results throughout the intervention process is equally important. It gives educators an idea of how they are progressing and tests the effects of the intervention (Bryant et al., 2011).

Professional Development

Research has been conducted exploring the effects of professional development among educators to increase numeracy achievement in primary classrooms. According to (Nelson & McMaster, 2019), educators require training and professional development to run an effective early numeracy intervention program. Ensuring that staff members who will be performing the early numeracy intervention programs are trained in using proper interventions techniques, strategies, and instructional tools, ensures the program has optimal opportunities for success. (Bryant et al., 2011) states a similar view communicating that the procedures required for the intervention were not only modelled first but also practised. This training’s purpose was to ensure that the instructors were well equipped to train teachers and observe their fidelity assessment. (Bryant et al. 2011, p.12). Instructors stated training sessions to be most effective when they took place at the beginning of every year and before each intervention unit. Teachers have gone as far as to state that the teachers opportunities of development opportunities are valued, and the ensuing training proceed throughout (Stobie et al., 2014).

Effective teaching interventions

Intervention means a deviation from existing teaching practices (Simms V et al. 2019). It is against this backdrop that the importance of teachers’ input concerning mathematical skill development is noted. The mode of teaching determines whether teachers would be successful in their mandate of passing down knowledge. Currently, numeracy skills in primary schools are lack hence the need of coming up with more effective teaching modes to replace the old ones. Interventions thus call for a change to the teaching practice through the use of effective teaching procedures. The procedures are only effective when they impact a large group of learners.

Teachers can use manipulative, which are physical objects, to assist in the course of teaching. Manipulative put numbers into perspective, facilitating easier understanding of mathematical concepts. Manipulatives also make learning fun and engaging, thus promoting learner participation in the learning activity. For instance, students trained in using a physical abacus transition seamlessly to mental calculations skills (Simms V et al. 2019). The advancement is an indication of an improved numerical capability in mathematical development.

Developing an effective feedback system between the learners and teachers is necessary to determine understanding mathematical concepts. Feedback enables the teacher to assess the effectiveness of their teaching and adjust as per the requirement of students. Moreover, the system can help identify students with difficulties, and personalized intervention systems can be made.

Learning is even more effective when technological engagement is adopted. Studies show that older primary school learners excel more in a virtual learning environment than physical ones. Web-based learning mainly provides unlimited reference opportunities to problem-solving questions that make the bulk of mathematical skills (Simms V et al. 2019). Studies reveal that peer-assisted mathematical learning was far more effective than regular teacher assistance. Students are less anxious and more interested in group discussions than in a regular class setting. The attributes set the fodder for grasping mathematical concepts. The study results reveal that indeed the delivery context of knowledge heavily influences learner participation and the inevitable understanding.

Numeracy Intervention Reviews

Unlike in other areas of mathematical development, little to no reviews of interventions concerned with the development of early numeracy skills exist. Up to now, there is little existence of meta-analysis solely evaluating mathematics intervention for primary school participants. According to Frye et al. (2013), the numeracy intervention programs include; daily integration of mathematical instructions, viewing the world mathematically, incorporation of progress monitoring tools, teaching data analysis skills and geometry, and lastly, teaching numbers operations concepts. Faithfully following the five recommendations results in improved mathematical skills, and their successful application indicates effective intervention. Further studies reveal that intervention yields more significant results when there exists; computer-assisted educational strategies, explicit instructions, strategic instructions, and use of representations. Frye et al. (2013) conclude that instructional recommendations support successful intervention. When mathematical instructors follow such recommendations, a result is an improvement in mathematical skills.



Implementation Fidelity

The fidelity concept measures how well an intervention is being effected in its replacement of old teaching practice. Under the concept, teaching sessions are observed to gauge the teacher’s application of recommended teaching techniques. Assessment of the change in teaching techniques is done using quality performance indicators such as: using teaching strategies like manipulatives, maintaining student attention and behaviour, and implementing instruction procedures (Beng H. S et al., 2019). Effective classroom practices show how well the teacher can command his students’ undivided attention. On the other hand, instruction procedures refer to how a combination of systemic, inquiry-based, and explicit instructions are used in the course of learning.

Effective conveying of instructions ensures that communication between the teacher and learners is clear. The existence of these indicators in a learning session proves that indeed interventions have been made on teaching techniques, thus showing the competency of teachers. Teacher satisfaction is also assessed to measure implementation fidelity (Baye A et al., 2017). Since teachers are the conveyors of knowledge, their endorsement of intervention policies is essential in owning up to the changes. Teachers become more dedicated in their practice if only they approve the interventions. Components of instructions as well as the lesson content should be to their satisfaction. A well-received intervention plan is easy to sell to the students, thus improving learning outcomes.

Successful Intervention Plan

Research indicates that the earlier students receive numeracy intervention, the better the chances of them experiencing success in mathematics. With this being said, several components make up the intervention plan to run well and be effective. Conclusion: there are several factors and strategies mentioned by Clement (2011) and Stobie (2004) that contribute to successful numeracy intervention among primary grades. One of the main focuses in both articles is the importance of a detailed intervention plan involving teachers, parents, and students. The plan should be collaborative and proper resources should be established and implemented to ensure academic success among students.

Evidence of EIPs effectiveness in prolonged use is plenty when; the prolonged intervention includes parents and children, intensive and multicomponent (Durlak, 1995, p. 57). Stobie (2004) indicates that the numeracy intervention programs implemented in three different schools were schools where children attending came from low-income families. The goal was to provide one-on-one intervention using a specific program tailored to that student and mental math strategies. Both articles describe that multitiered systems were implemented successfully in schools due to the organization, prioritization, and dedication to the intervention programs. Running a successful Response to Intervention Program (RTI) is hard work and dedication on all individuals involved; however, the reward, in the end, is worth it when you see children experiencing academic success.


The research conducted for this review supports the importance of early numeracy intervention in primary grades. Clement (2011) and Stobie et al. (2004) presented specific strategies used for numeracy intervention. Clement (2011) stated that Instructors implemented the Technology-enhanced, Research-based, Instruction, Assessment, and professional Development (TRIAD) model with great success. The emphasis is put on collaboration among teachers, administrators, and families as a critical component to the academic achievement reached by students. Over two years, teachers took part in professional development, training, discussions, and role-playing, all with specific goals to enhance students’ early numeracy skills. Throughout the two-year TRIAD model, teachers became much more confident when providing numeracy interventions and strong positive effects on children’s achievement were noted (Clement 2011). Although there was achievement documented, black children exhibited much smaller advancements than their same grouped peers. (Cleme,nt, 2011) “The TRIAD interventions effectively improve the teachers expectations for black childrens grasp of mathematics. They do this by availing trajectories of learning that assist teachers to know the childrens potential and how instructors can assist them in advancing their mathematical skills. (Clement, 2011). It was unclear as to why these students achieved much lower than their peers. It would be interesting to gather information about their SES to see at what age or if they’ve ever been introduced to early numeracy skills.

Very little research and information have been conducted on exact lesson plans used for numeracy intervention. It would be beneficial to have such findings to assist educators in properly implementing numeracy interventions in the classroom. According to Bryant (2011), by the end of First Grade, 45 % of students and 22% of comparison students were no longer at risk for mathematical difficulties after receiving the numeracy intervention throughout the year. If every school were to have success as such in their schools, this would significantly reduce the number of learners at risk of failing mathematics by clearing Grade one.


The research shared in this review provides an overview of critical factors to consider when implementing early numeracy intervention in primary classrooms. Competency in mathematics is an excellent indicator of advanced mathematical knowledge. For students from low SES backgrounds or low resource communities, this potential may be out of reach or unattainable. Providing a structured research-based mathematics intervention program in schools has proven effective and efficient at closing achievement gaps in mathematics. To run a successful numeracy intervention program, schools need to ensure it remains a priority. School Development Plans are the long term solution of sustaining the program (Stobie, 2004, p.160). Collaboration is essential and will involve rigorous planning, organization, pretesting/monitoring, and professional development. Schools need to prioritize intervention practices by ensuring they have proper resources, staffing, evaluations, and professional development to ensure that early numeracy intervention is successful.

Discussion and Recommendations

Successful performance in mathematics at advanced levels is determined by developing early numeracy skills in primary schools. However, due to different mathematical capabilities exhibited by students, it is necessary to come up with interventions suited to the learners’ needs. The interventions are complementary to the existing practices since they bolster core instructions. Timely interventions ensure a good grasp of foundational mathematical concepts and skills are learned at an early stage of learning. Proper research is, however, lacking in the review focusing on subjects from preschool to first grade. This period in time is crucial in developing mathematical skills and knowledge since early numeracy skills are only taught then, giving students an excellent mathematical foundation with this bearing in mind the importance of addressing the gap in research that exists at that crucial time of learning.




















Baye, A., Inns, A., Lake, C., Slaving, R. E. (2017). Effective reading programs for secondary students. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Research and Reform in Education

Beng H. S, Stephen G, Rebecca M, Nadia S (2019) Evaluation of the impact of Maths Counts delivered by teaching assistants on primary school pupils attainment in maths, Educational Research and Evaluation, 25:3-4, 203-224, DOI: 10.1080/13803611.2019.1686031

Bryant D, Roberts, G, Porterfield J, Pfannenstiel K, Vaughn S, Gersten, R. Bryant R (2011). Early numeracy intervention program for first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Exceptional Children, 78(1), 723.

Clements D, Sarama, J. (2011). Early childhood mathematics intervention. Science, 333(6045), 968970.

Frye D, McDowell J, Carver M, Jordan C., & Baroody A, Burchinal M (2013). Teaching math to young children. Educator’s practice guide. What Works Clearinghouse. NCEE 2014-4005. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance

Judge S, Watson M. (2011). Longitudinal outcomes for mathematics achievement for students with learning disabilities. The Journal of Educational Research, 104, 147157. doi:10.1080/00220671003636729

Lembke E, Foegen, A. (2009). Identifying early numeracy indicators for kindergarten and first-grade students. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 24(1), 1220.

Malofeeva E, Young, L., & Ciancio, D. Saco X, Day J (2004). Construction and evaluation of a number sense test with a head start children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 648659. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.96.4.648

Nelson G, McMaster L. (2019). The effects of early numeracy interventions for students in preschool and early elementary: a meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(6), 10011022.

Simms V, Sloan S, McKeaveney C, Gilmore, C. (2019). Interventions to improve mathematical achievement in primary school-aged children. UlsterUniversity.

Stobie I, Truswell E, Woolfson L, Connaughton N, Boyle J, (2004). Quality indicators for effective early intervention in literacy and numeracy. International Journal of Early Years Education, 12(2), 157168.

Sylke T, Johannes L. (2012). Early numeracy intervention for low-performing kindergartners. Journal of Early Intervention, 34(4), 243264.


Are you in need of assignment help?

Are you a high school, college, or university student pursuing a diploma, bachelors, master’s, or Ph.D. degree? Sometimes, assignments and life can overwhelm you.

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

That is where we step in. Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! With our student assignment help service, you can submit all your assignment on time and score superb grades. You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our academic writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an academic writer with our assignment help service is to have a college bachelors degree. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the writers area of specialization.

What subjects does your online assignment help service help with?

We offer student assignment help on various subjects. These include:

  • Nursing
  • Psychology
  • Sociology
  • Business
  • Statistics
  • Finance
  • Literature
  • Law
  • Finance
  • Computer science

Why should you use our assignment help service?

  • You get unique plagiarism-free papers
  • We ensure timely delivery of all assignments
  • Papers are of unmatchable quality
  • We can handle assignments of any deadline
  • We have a pool of skilled, experienced native English writers
  • The minimum requirement to be a writer with our company is to have a bachelors degree
  • Writers go through rigorous tests and mentorship
  • You get a subject-relevant academic writer
  • We ensure strict adherence to paper instructions
  • We can handle tackle bulk assignments
  • We charge fair and reasonable prices
  • We offer awesome discounts to our clients
  • Our customer support is available 24/7
  • You get superb grades consistently
  • We guarantee 100% privacy and confidentiality
  • We are 100% legit
  • Customer satisfaction is our core priority
  • You can communicate directly with the writer
  • Our quality assurance department ensures your papers quality is top-notch
  • We have secure payment methods

How does our student assignment help service work?

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver a perfect paper. It will also help to avoid unnecessary revisions. At this point, you can attach files that are provided for the assignment. We usually insist a lot on the client uploading the grading rubric if it is available. The writers adhere to the highest level of the rubric to ensure that you get a perfect grade.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to securely pay for the paper so that we can assign the paper to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writers area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer.

4. Download the paper

The paper is uploaded to your personal account and sent to your email. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper