growth and the social importance of ethnic media in the United States. The article provides a clear overview of the growth of ethnic media publications and stresses that many of these publications provide valuable information for immigrants and ethnic groups. The article also stresses that many of the publications, while not always presented in a “professional” manner, provide a valuable services to many ethnic communities; particularly with regard to information on voting and becoming a citizen.

Furthermore, the article states that there has been a substantial growth in the number of these publications in recent years. One of the favorable aspects of the ethnic media is the fact that they are in intimate contact with their communities and therefore can provide in-depth insight and awareness of the particular needs and requirements of that community. A second important function is that they “bridge the gap” between cultures and therefore facilitate social cohesion and integration. There is also the fact that many of these publications place emphasis on community building.

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The increasing influence of these ethnic papers and media is the main aspect that is focused on in the article. This is evidenced by the fact that the mainstream media are beginning to pay more attention to these publications.

The article also investigates the important issue of the acceleration of acculturation. The author emphasizes the fact immigrants in ethnic communities today can use the new media forms and technologies such as the Internet to facilitate close ties cultures of origin, as well as with the culture of their adopted country.

The article discusses the changes in immigration reality and policy in the United States. It notes that there is a greater acceptance of immigrants, which is an aspect that tends to increase the acculturation into mainstream society. Given the fact that immigration is a fact that is likely to increase rather then decrease in the future, the article attempts to evaluate the significance of the ethnic media in the process of acculturation and other immigration issues.

One point-of-view in this regard is that the ethnic media is not helping to increase or accelerate acculturation. This viewpoint argues that the ethnic media is creating a new national identity, rate then acclimatizing the immigrants to the present culture. Another critical view seems to be that the new ethnic media is serving a double purpose in both acclimatizing the newcomers to the new culture while also retaining ties with their home cultures. On the other hand there are those who see ethnic publications as delaying acculturation by stressing ties to the home culture.

A central concern that should be borne in mind is that the ethnic press provides economic assistance to the immigrants in terms of services and jobs that are available. The article also points out that publication in English, like the Haitian Times, also serve to enlighten the non-immigrant public about what is going on in that Haitian sector of the community. Like many other ethnic publications, the purpose the Haitian Times to enlighten and guide the ethnic community both their his culture and the adopted culture. One of the many challenges facing ethnic publications is keeping up with the development and change situation of their readers.

Article 14. The Diversity Visa Lottery

This article traces the underlying developments that led to the diversity visa lottery. The author argues that this immigration system has it roots in the various complex issues and immigration patterns that were initiated by the Immigration Act of 1965. The Immigration Act of 1965, as the article points out, was intended to abolish immigration on the basis of race, ethnicity and national origin as central criterions for admission. Other criteria such as close family relationships and employment skills were employed instead. However the paper contends that the creation of the diversity lottery was established by certain Irish and Italian-American members of congress who “rigged” or manipulated the immigration system in favor of their ethic constituents. This led to the diversity visa lottery system which in turn, the article states, has resulted in further unforeseen consequences.

One of the central unforeseen consequences of the Immigration Act of 1965 was that it radically changed the composition and the flow of the immigrant population to the country. This led to an increase in immigrants from Asia and Latin American, and relatively few immigrants for Europe. The new immigration law after 1965 also meant that prospective Irish immigrants were not, according to their supporters in Congress, adequately provided for. This disparity and the drop in Italian and Irish immigration was to lead the development of the lottery system.

A factor that was instrumental in the desire to increase the Italian and Irish population in the country were political considerations and many politicians saw an increase in the number of these immigrants as beneficial for their political careers. The diversity lottery was also introduced as a result of the perceived advantage that Asian and Latinos had due to family -based preferences. The diversity lottery legislation was neither family nor employment based. However the lottery was biased by the reservation of 40% of the visas for Ireland.

Many groups protested against what was seen as the reintroduction of discriminatory and considerations. There was strong dissention due to the view that the lottery system was based on national considerations rather then personal or other attributes. However despite these objections the diversity lottery system still remains a part of the immigration system today.

Article 16. Emerging Issues: National Origin Discrimination in Employment

The article begins by emphasizing the fact that America is a country which was founded on immigration and the principle of personal liberty for all. There has been general acceptance therefore of immigrants in the country. However the events of 9/11 changed this and there has since the attack been a growing suspicion of strangers in the community. This factor is also linked to the U.S.A. Patriot Act and the restrictions of freedom in the country. These factors have resulted in discrimination on the basis of national origin. The gist of the article investigates this aspect and various ways that diversity and tolerance in the workplace can be maintained.

The article refers to Title V11 of the Civil Rights Act. This Act prohibits discrimination in employment. While the issue of national origins is not defined in the statute, yet the EEOC has provided detailed regulatory guidelines to the Civil Rights Act; which sees discrimination on the basis of national origin as a denial of equal opportunity.

However, the study has found that national origin discrimination has not been as pervasive in the workplace as race and sex discrimination. The study also states that there is a concern that the number of national discrimination cases may increase in the future. This is mainly due to two factors; the war against terrorism and the increased number of immigrants into the country. There is a concern that Americans may view immigrants from other nationalities in a more negative light against the background of international terrorist threats. The article also emphasizes that employers should take care that their practices are evidence of a commitment to diversity and tolerance.

Article 35. Racial restrictions in the Law of Citizenship

The central point that this article makes is that the racial composition of the U.S. is a reflection to a large extent of immigration and naturalization laws in the country; as well as he history of these laws. The article reviews the various instances in which Federal law has restricted immigration on racial grounds. For example, the 1917 “Asiatic barred zone,” which included all those who wished to immigrate friom Asia. The author also points out many racial restrictions on immigration were only in reality dismantled in 1965, with the Immigration Act of that year.

However, discrimination in racial terms has not been restricted to immigration issues. The author states that the laws of citizenship have also shown an even greater amount of discrimination. The article goes on to describe the various laws as they relate to birthright and citizenship.

The important point is made that most people receive citizen as a result of birth right and not naturalization. It is also noted that for the first hundred years of the history of the county little concern was given to racial minorities.

Blacks for example were denied citizenship in 1857 – which was rectified by the Civil Rights act of 1866. The author also cites other instances of discrimination after this period. This discrimination was also to apply to the granting of citizenship to the Native American Indians. It was only in 1940 that the basic law of citizenship, namely that a person born in the country is a citizen of the county, was fully applied.

The author also mentions that racial restrictions on citizenship still apply to some extent today. This refers to those who would return to the time when citizenship depended on racial parameters, such as immigrant status; for example the denial of citizenship to children born in the country form undocumented immigrants. The author states that this is a view that is based on racial discriminatory factors. There is therefore a concern among many critics that racial relations and discrimination can still have an effect on citizenship issues.

The article goes on to discuss the problems of naturalization in the same vein and points out the racial and discriminatory history of this process. This has been particularly the case in terms of Asian naturalization. Chinese people also had to wait until 1940, when they were allowed to naturalize. The article deals as well with the problematics of gender issues and criticisms, which are also related to racial issues.


Akst D. New Americans Fresh off the presses. Carnegie Reporter. 2003. pp.3-11

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