The threats to computer networks and systems continue to advance as a result of firm progressions in the superiority of attack technology, the easiness of acquiring such technology, and the rising use of these practices by state and non-state actors to acquire intelligence and interrupt operations. Research indicates that in the past decade, the cases of cybercrimes accounted by state organizations rose from about 5,500 to over 48,000, a rise of almost 73% (Wilshusen, 2017).

The continuous monitoring of state information systems was established by the United States government to allow agencies and departments to uphold continuous near-real-time responsiveness and evaluation of information security threat and quickly react to support departmental risk management assessments. According to Wilshusen (2016), one big United States government organization has contracted with SurprTEK, an Information Technology professional and engineering services company, to create a continuous monitoring system that is liable for observing millions of tools crosswise a worldwide circulated network. The system has allowed the customer to enhance its safe structure management, largely enhancing the security stance of its systems and saving immeasurable work hours by automating a number of the formerly manual procedures.

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A continuous monitoring system is basically a data analytics application, so at a great level, the architecture for a continuous monitoring system looks like that of most characteristic business intelligence/data analytics applications. The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has outlined a methodological orientation architecture for continuous monitoring solutions referred to as Continuous Asset Evaluation, Situation Awareness, and Risk Scoring (CAESARS) (Hunter and MacDonald, 2017). The CAESARS orientation architecture embodies the basic operational elements of an Information Security Continuous Monitoring (ICSM) and threat-scoring system. The four operational subsystems outlined by CAESARS areas discussed below.

The Sensor subsystem is accountable for gathering data such as software and hardware inventory, amenabilities and susceptibilities from the objectives (that is devices and assets like the network, computing, and mobile tools on an enterprise’s networks), and configurations. The sensor subsystems might be made up of agentless and agent-based and hardware besides software tools that scan the networks and devices and send information back to the repository or database subsystem (Oliveira Albuquerque, García Villalba, Sandoval Orozco, Sousa Júnior and Kim, 2016).

The repository or database subsystem is accountable for keeping the results gathered by the sensor subsystem. It is likewise accountable for managing and storing the methodological security strategies and enactment guidance that outline how the objectives must be arranged. Targets are evaluated against these standard arrangements to regulate amenability and how well they are safeguarded.

The threat-scoring/analysis subsystem is accountable for fusing, correlating, republication, and deconflicting the results gathered by the sensor subsystem besides evaluating amenability of the results against the standards (Wilshusen, 2014). Once the gathered information has been processed by the scrutiny capacities, the threat-scoring capacities are accountable for using this data to computer security stance and threat of the enterprise using algorithms that consider the seriousness of the outcomes, the prospect of exploit and the effect of positive achievement.

The presentation and reporting subsystem are accountable for presenting the outcomes of the scrutiny and threat-scoring subsystem through several reports and dashboards to inspire managers to lower threat; inspire administration to support threat mitigation; motivate competition; and quantity and identify improvement. Wilshusen (2011) asserts that the subsystem has to be capable of presenting data at a total level crosswise enterprise besides being capable of drilling down into particular tools and outcomes to support remediation.

An ISCM solution uses several technologies from MDM applications, business intelligence, and data analytics to the composite domain of cybersecurity. Therefore, one might come across several of the same challenges encountered by these kinds of applications around data architecture, data integration, scalability and performance, analytics, with further complexities instigated by the user databases, cases, and baselines that are particular to cybersecurity.



Hunter, D., & MacDonald, M. N. (2017). The emergence of a security discipline in the post 9-11 discourse of U.S. security organisations. Critical Discourse Studies14(2), 206–222.

Oliveira Albuquerque, R., García Villalba, L., Sandoval Orozco, A., Sousa Júnior, R., & Kim, T.-H. (2016). Leveraging information security and computational trust for cybersecurity. Journal of Supercomputing72(10), 3729–3763.

Wilshusen, G. C. (2011). INFORMATION SECURITY: Additional Guidance Needed to Address Cloud Computing Concerns. GAO Reports, 1–15. Retrieved from

Wilshusen, G. C. (2014). INFORMATION SECURITY: Federal Agencies Need to Enhance Responses to Data Breaches. GAO Reports, 1–16. Retrieved from

Wilshusen, G. C. (2016). FEDERAL INFORMATION SECURITY Actions Needed to Address Challenges. GAO Reports, 1–15. Retrieved from

Wilshusen, G. C. (2017). FEDERAL INFORMATION SECURITY: Weaknesses Continue to Indicate Need for Effective Implementation of Policies and Practices. GAO Reports, 1–59. Retrieved from

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