What is the definition of international migration?
International migration is the movement of people from one country to another, due to pull or push factors. These factors may be to secure employment, to get spouses, to spend holidays or on business. This movement may be short term or permanent stay that involves the change of citizenship.
What are the factors which influence people to move between countries?
Push Factors may include factors such as poor Medical Care, political fear; bullying and the pull factors may include better job opportunities, enjoyment, medical care, security. These factors also form the incentives for migration from one country to another. While most immigrants go for long-term stay, business immigrants generally transfer to other countries for a specific period and then back to their countries after the completion or achievement of their objectives

Discuss these factors in relation to migration to the UK.
The key factors that contribute to the movement of the people into the UK are pulling factors. For one, the UK has a remarkably strong financial condition as compared to other countries, this attract immigrants from other poor countries, thereby increasing the influx of immigrant to the UK. On the other hand, the economic stability f the country is also valid considering the facts that the country has experienced one of the best political conditions for nearly a decade as compared to the countries that experience a lot of political uprisings, wars, cultural clashes and others. The country also as improving living standards; better living standards is essential in countries such as the UK with stable economic and political regimes
. Enjoyment and security are also contributing pull factors. Most of people go to the UK on holiday or employment, however, those who go on vacation go back then due to the attractiveness of the country. Last but not least, most people migrate to the country for the main purpose of getting spouses and marrying and never to come back after getting married

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What impact did the expansion of the European Union into Eastern Europe have on movement of people in Europe?
1) the number of immigrants spiked as people moved in for greater pastures, economic condition and security reasons
2) resources were strained and people started suffering
3) some people moved out of the country in search of greener pastures
4) The labour market was affected as most people lost their jobs to low wage labourers, mostly Bulgarians and Romanians, others came from Poland, Slovakia and Lithuania. (many A10 workers arrived and only 20% returned)
5) the country went into a recession that hit the economic position of the country
2.What has been the trend in the overall migration pattern to the UK in the period between 1991 and 2010?

A-Squared 0.488
p 0.198
95% Critical Value 0.787
99% Critical Value 1.092
Mean 135.700
Mode 163, 198
Standard Deviation 80.055
Variance 6408.853
Skewedness -0.398
Kurtosis -0.887
N 20.000

Minimum -13.000
1st Quartile 70.750
Median 155.500
3rd Quartile 198.000
Maximum 252.000

Confidence Interval 37.467
for Mean (Mu) 98.233
0.95 173.167

For Stdev (sigma) 60.881

for Median 76.000
The highest number of immigrant t the UK in any year is 252. The mean of immigrants to the UK over the ten year period was 135. However, the skewness of the immigration numbers is negative meaning, most of the immigrant moved to the UK then those who moved from the UK. It is also necessary to note that number of immigrant was exponentially increasing over the period the data was collected, and the scale was linear (linear trend line). The linear scale factors were +44, meaning that in any year, the number of immigrant increased by a flat rate of 44 persons if all factors are kept constant (Blanchflower &,Bryson, 2010).

2) For the years 2004 to 2010: Illustrate and explain the inflow and outflow patterns of migration from the European Union to the UK for groups from Western Europe (EU 15)
While the inflow of patterns shows that more and more people are moving into the UK from the western Europe, the number of people moving out of the country was first decreasing and then spiked in the year 2009, this later dropped in 2009 and 2010. This is because; initially people moved into the UK due to significant economic and political conditions. However, this changed when the economic and political circumstances stated becoming unbearable. When then EU expended into Europe, the influx of immigrant into the country increased in 2009, and the number of people leaving the country increased in the following year as most of the citizens and immigrants moved to other countries to look for greener pastures (Constant, & Zimmermann, 2007).

How do the migration trends and patterns in England and Wales differ from the overall migration pattern to the UK? Support and illustrate your narrative explanations
Wales and England are some of the countries they enjoy greater prosperity and therefore, have extremely strict requirement into and out. This fact makes the migration patterns remarkably different from that of other areas. However, the number of immigrants into these areas is increasing but is mostly young men and women who go to these areas for studies.
On the other hand, the number of people leaving these two countries is remarkably few as there are no incentives to leave the countries, these two countries are economically and politically stable, have enough social facilities and amenities. These two countries are well governed, and people are less likely to move out (Marco, Manning & Wadsworth, 2006).

5. Based on Table 2.01a and Table 2.07, analyse how and why the migration pattern varies with sex and age over the period 1991 to 2010.
A migration pattern varies with sex and ages based on a number of findings, some of these are based on gender discrimination while others are just norms. For example, it is easy form a man to migrate to another country to earn income to support the family because men are the heads of families. Though this is an economic pull factor this is based on age. Men move to other countries in search of employment and send money home.
ON the other hand, old women can also move to the UK in search of employment to support their families in the EU countries. However, some may remarry in the UK and invite their family’s mainly young siblings and friend.
Additionally, it is a norm that the increase in migration of young girls into the UK may be attributed to drug trafficking whereby they are used for trafficking drugs into the country, and may increase the number of immigrants.
Young men also view migration as a rite of passage; they migrate to other countries as a means of proving their maturity and experience.
Some parents are likely to send their daughters abroad to earn income and support their families; this is common in Africa and is likely to be the main reason why most of immigrants to the UK are young ladies from the EU. On the other hand, most of the immigrants both male and female are young, is because of education, most of the immigrants, move to the UK for further studies, only to complete their studies, marry and fail to back to their countries of origin thanks to the dual citizenship (Dean, 2006, pp 715-735)


Dean Yang, 2006. “Why Do Migrants Return to Poor Countries? Evidence from Philippine Migrants’ Responses to Exchange Rate Shocks,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 715-735, December.

Marco Manacorda & Alan Manning & Jonathan Wadsworth, 2006. “The Impact of Immigration on the Structure of Male Wages: Theory and Evidence from Britain,” IZA Discussion Papers 2352, Institute for the Study of Labor

Constant, Amelie & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2007. “Circular Migration: Counts of Exits and Years Away from the Host Country,” CEPR Discussion Papers 6438, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers

David G. Blanchflower & Alex Bryson, 2010. “The Wage Impact of Trade Unions in the UK Public and Private Sectors,” Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 77(305), pages 92-109, 01.

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