In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.
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Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. Retrieved from:
Computing IQ Essay
Consider the following scenario:
Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.
According to Sternberg, what is Kara’s IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.
Kara’s IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. “Sternberg’s discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should take into consideration things like culture, gender, age, parenting style, personality, and schooling” (Wilson 2016). Although Kara’s intelligence is high and indicates superior mental functioning in terms of “analytical, practical, and creative” ability it is also not absolute and a reflection of Kara’s ability to use her potential as well as her innate ability (Wilson 2016).
Choose two theories of intelligence.
Write a 150- to 200-word discussion on the components of each theory, and how they differ in relation to Spearman’s g factor.
Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences is often seen as counterbalance to the theory of general intelligence. Rather than viewing intelligence in a homogeneous fashion, Gardner suggests that intelligence contains many frequently-ignored components, including musical and kinesthetic intelligence, which are frequently ignored within the context of the educational system of the United States. It is a “challenge” to “an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student learning. Indeed, as currently constituted, our educational system is heavily biased toward linguistic modes of instruction and assessment and, to a somewhat lesser degree, toward logical-quantitative modes as well” (Lane 2008). Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence views intelligence as more interrelated than Gardner’s theory but also suggests that merely citing a raw general intelligence score is not enough to measure intelligence: “Sternberg contends that successful people learn to combine and use aspects from all three components of intelligence — analytical, creative, and practical forms. It is not enough to be proficient in just one area — there has to be interplay between all three” (Wilson 2016).
Learning and Intelligence
Write a 100- to 150-word response to each of the following questions.
Q1. Describe the main components of classical conditioning.
Classical conditioning requires the use of a stimulus which provokes a particular reaction which is then paired consistently with a neutral stimulus to provoke the same response. Through the pairing of the provoking, original stimulus with the neutral stimulus, eventually the neutral stimulus provokes the same response as the original stimulus. In Pavlov’s classical experiment, a dog was trained to salivate at the sound of a bell by ringing a bell whenever food was presented (which naturally caused the dog to salivate). Even when there was no food, the dog would still salivate at the sound of the bell by the end of the experiment (McLeod 2014). This can be seen in everyday life even without intentional design when dogs salivate at the opening of a can or rustling bag when their owner goes to prepare non-dog food for him or herself.
Q2. Describe the main components of operant conditioning.
Operant conditioning involves ‘shaping’ behaviors in which positive behaviors are rewarded with a positive stimulus (like food) and negative behaviors are punished with either punishment (such as admonishment) or negative reinforcement (such as the removal of a cell phone from a child’s possession) (McLeod 2015). Reinforcement can be either constant, after every desired action, or can occur on a schedule when the behavior occurs after a specific number of times, or at variable intervals provided the behavior still occurs; it can also occur at completely random intervals — again, provided the behavior is still occurring (McLeod 2015). Even very complex behaviors can be conditioned through operant conditioning (as in animal trick training) as behaviors which make up components of the complex series of actions are rewarded (McLeod 2015)
Q3. Describe the different types of long-term memories.
Three dominant types of long-term memory exist. Procedural memory is the memory for how to do things in an unconscious fashion, like driving (McLeod 2010). Semantic memory is used for storing facts and is conscious — such as retrieving the knowledge of all of the states of the union (McLeod 2010). Episodic memory is also conscious but involves memories of experiences, such as a childhood birthday party (McLeod 2010). The distinction between these types of memory has been observed in patients with brain damage, many of whom may struggle with making new semantic or episodic memories but who still can used procedural memory to perform the actions of daily live (McLeod 2010).
Q4. Describe the main theories of intelligence.
In general, there are two dominating theories of intelligence. The g-theory of intelligence posits that there is a general kind of intelligence that transcends specific categories. According to Spearman’s g-factor theory: “if a certain person performed well on a test of verbal abilities, then that same person also performed well on another test of another cognitive ability, for instance, a mathematics test. Spearman named this positive correlation among tests the positive manifold” (Paik 2001). Howard Gardner’s theory (and others) challenge this idea, noting that some people seem to show an uncommonly high level of intelligence in one area but less so in others. “A drawback to the general intelligence school of thought is that it is heavily dependent on psychometric evaluations. Consequently, it cannot take into account the vast array of different talents that people have,” and many components of intelligence are not necessarily measured by intelligence testing (Paik 2001).
Lane, C. (20008). Gardner’s multiple intelligences. The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html
McLeod, S. A. (2010). Long-term memory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/long-term-memory.html McLeod, S. A. (2014). Classical Conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.html
McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner – operant conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
Paik, H. (2001). One intelligence or many? Alternative approaches to cognitive abilities. Personality Research.
Wilson, L. (2016). Sternberg’s view of intelligence. Second Principle. Retrieved from http://thesecondprinciple.com/optimal-learning/sternbergs-views-intelligence/
1. Hold information as either an icon or echo
2. Transforming information into a storable form.
3. Sub-system that retains and processes new information for a short period of time
4. The process of transforming short-term memories into long-term memories
6. The process of breaking down information into smaller pieces
7. The process of repeating information to enhance retention
8. The process of assigning meaning to information to transfer to long-term memory
5. Sub-system that retains information for long periods of time
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