A “make-whole” call allows the issuer of a bond to pay off the bond early. The payment to the bondholder is based on the net present value of the future payments remaining on the bond (Investopedia, 2012). This provision does not necessarily make the investors whole. The investors receive the net present value of the future payments on the bond. For the investor, the discount rate used to calculate the net present value should be the same rate at which the investor can re-invest those funds with the same risk level. In many cases, however, the discount rate used for the NPV payment would either be written into the provision, or would be determined by the bond issuer. Thus, the discount rate could be a higher or lower than the reinvestment rate of the investor. So while there is no guarantee that this provision would fail to make the investor whole, there is the risk to the investor that he or she might not be made whole should the provision be called.
There should not be a difference between the zero coupon and regular coupon bond at the time of issue. They should both reflect the current risk situation with respect to prevailing interest rates, so that the yield to maturity is neural to the type of bond issued. Over time, however, changes in interest rates would have an impact on the value of the bond. Thus, whether a zero coupon bond or a normal coupon bond is better would depend on the issuer’s view of future interest rate changes. Unless there is a compelling financial reason to issue a zero coupon bond — and bear in mind that expectations of future rate changes are basically gambling — I would recommend a regular issue simply because there is a bigger market for regular bond issues than there is for zero coupon bond issues. I would also recommend offering a normal call feature rather than a make-whole call feature. The risk associated with the make-whole feature that could result in a small loss to the investor is something that could reduce the market for the bond. Again, in order to ensure that all of the bonds are sold, it is best to utilize the most common bond features, and that includes a regular call feature.
5. After the commission, the sales will be â‚¬4.75 million per month. Gross sales (â‚¬5 million) in dollars would be $6.85 million. Production costs would therefore be (.7)($6.85) = $4.79 million per month. The net sales would be $6.5 million, so the profit at this exchange rate would be $1.71 million. Because there is going to be a 90-day lag between the completion of the order and the payment, this is at least a 120 day lag, including production time, between the order and the payment. This subjects the company to a high degree of foreign exchange rate risk. The breakeven exchange rate between euros and dollars is 0.959. This represents a dramatic change from the current exchange rate. The euro has not been at this level in the past five years (Oanda, 2012).
Thus, there is basically no risk that the euro will change the rate so significantly in the next four months as to erode the company’s profit margin. Additionally, there is an active and liquid hedging market for the EUR/USD pairing, and this will allow East Coast to lock in today’s rate, for a small fee. As such, it is recommended that East Coast Yachts sell internationally. The volatility in the EUR/USD pairing is relatively low, certainly for any four-month span, and the margin that East Coast would take at today’s exchange rate is such that the company will earn profits even with a major change in the rate. As such, there is no financial reason to avoid the European market. This is especially the case given the ease of hedging the value of the European sales.
Investopedia. (2012). Make whole call provision. Investopedia. Retrieved February 12, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/make-wholecall.asp#axzz1m6xHDhx6
Oanda. (2012). Historical exchange rates. Oanda.com. Retrieved February 12, 2012 from http://www.oanda.com/currency/historical-rates/
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!