Philosophers of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece offers a plethora of great thinkers all of whom contributed greatly to understanding the mysteries of natural and unnatural phenomena. From the Pre-Socratic era to the Classical Age of thought, we come across various schools that painstakingly define the workings of the mind, soul, matter and the whole universe. This paper aims to outline the philosophical beliefs of the spearheads of Greek thought and compare their notions in a manner that shows the evolution of rational reason.
Greek thinkers of the pre-Socratic era, were the undoubtedly the first of many thinkers who delved into the mystics of nature and deemed it necessary to think along the lines of life and how it ought to be led. They presented a new rational line of thought whereby a lot of veneration was given to the intricate workings of the universe. These philosophers are singlehandedly responsible for kick starting the Western movement and changing the face of rational thought forever more. From scientific discoveries to sociological advances, these philosophers can be credited for probing into matters that their predecessors never thought about. To this day their contributions to philosophy, politics, biology, metaphysics and arts have helped many successors view the world through an insightful lens. These intellectual pioneers were dedicated to the cause of combining qualitative as well as quantitative analysis to present to us basic information that we take for granted today.
As far as Ancient Greek philosophy is concerned, it all started with the pressing need to unravel the secrets of nature. The original philosophers of this enlightened era that we commonly refer to as the pre-Socratic era scrutinized the workings of the planetary system as well as the basic nature of life. They were then succeeded by Pythagoras whose ideas were more abstract. He emphasized upon the significance of the soul and its development. His mystical opinions were then extended by Heraclitus, whose work covered many metaphysical schools of thought regarding evolution. After this era, came the Eleatic powerhouse Parmenides, who propagated the belief of utmost singularity in all forms of existence; and these ideas, were then reinforced by Zeno as well. According to many contemporary philosophers, this particular school of thought was the primary opposition to pre-Socratic ideology. This epoch was soon followed by the works of Democritus, whose discoveries revolved around the atomic nature of matter. The coming period recognized the efforts of the Sophists, whose main area of focus had by now deviated from unraveling the natural mysteries. The Sophists transcended from their predecessors’ schools of thought and dived into sociological perspectives instead. (Baldwin 1902) All in all, we can clearly see how tireless the efforts of these intellectual giants have been and how much they have shaped our modern lives. This paper is based on the basic ideologies of Greek philosophy and the many contenders that made it happen.
We begin the journey along the development of Western philosophy by first establishing that in the time, the driving force behind all this philosophical upheaval was a need to understand the essential elements of the external world. The principles associated with pure sciences were being rampantly discovered and the mere existence of matter was enough to stimulate these great minds. In such a period, the philosophical relay was initiated by Thales (624-546 BC), who by many is regarded as the father of Greek philosophy. (Seyffert 1894) It was a time whereby the Greek civilization flourished and city states strengthened in terms of government and economy. After much progress and prosperity, these city states began to crumble under the weight of corruption and utilitarianism. Thales stepped in the cataclysm to fill the void created by a readily evolving Greece. He first studied the principles of geometry, and during the time acquired unmatched mathematical skills. His empirical capacity stretched to amazing lengths: he could calculate navigational distances, predict the height of a pyramid and even forecast a solar eclipse. (Bielaczyc and Collins 2006). His life was marred by much destitution but the sharpness of his mind never once wavered.
In terms of his philosophical school of thought, Thales is particularly known for claiming that all things are constituted of water. As such Thales can be applauded for presenting the foremost conjecture as to the constitution of matter. His study went deeper than any of his contemporaries because he proposed the quintessential idea of existence and hence ended up explaining all of natural phenomena. He is equally renowned for proposing the theory of the right angles of a triangle as well as angles within the isosceles triangle. By recognizing the properties of geometric figures, he started the mathematical revolution and hence presented various geometry oriented theories that we study today. In a time when all beliefs were ultimately governed by plentiful superstition and inescapable authoritative influence, Thales was the first man to go against traditional opinions and replace mythology with metaphysics. (Knierim 1999)
Furthermore, Thales claimed that all things possessed a soul and animation of a body is the definitive giveaway of an object in possession of a soul. In claiming so, he did not mean to blend his purely mathematical observations with divinity, but in fact explained the perfectly natural course of all existence. In fact there are two central themes to Thales’s philosophy: His views were purely naturalistic and concerned with the external world without any impinging superstitious influence and non-dualistic that is they unified the human mind with matter and treated it as a singular entity. (Knierim 1999)
Within the Milesian School of Philosophical Thought, Thales was followed by Anaximander. Anaximander presented great works with regard to cosmology as well was ontology. As a matter of fact Anaximander locked horns with all traditional beliefs pertaining to mythology and divinity, and devoted himself to the quest of finding entirely rational explanations to superstitious phenomena. He disentangled the technicalities associated with wind, rain, lightning etcetera, and affirmed that supernatural elements had nothing whatsoever to do with these. As such Anaximander was the premier meteorologist and can be lauded for being the first man to study whether and its correlates in such vigorous detail. Along with meteorology Anaximander also investigated the fields of geography and in fact his wisdom stretched enough to urge him to sketch the first map of the world. He was equally interested in astronomy and after the milestone of the world map he began charting heavenly bodies and constellations as well. He presented the basic idea of the world and the solar system as we know it today, and determined planetary positions and sizes with great zeal. He calculated the relative sizes of the Sun, the Earth and the moon, along with the basic nature of stars. What is perhaps most striking is Anaximander’s scholarly theory of ‘apeiron’ which postulated that the universe is boundless and there are infinite worlds within the universe. He defined this concept as the origin of every object to where it shall ultimately return. Moreover, Anaximander delved into the properties of the four basic elements (Earth, Water, Air and Fire) and postulated that they can convert into one another and are not infinite in term of their properties. Anaximander’s greatest contribution to the great minds of future is perhaps his teasing taste of the theory of gravitation. He believed that the Earth hangs in space and its spatial orientation is governed by mutual forces between the Earth and other objects. Such vast theories surely go on to prove how far sighted and keen this individual was and how much thought he lent to the cause of Greek philosophy. (Kahn 1994)
We now move from the Milesian era to the Ionian era of the pre-Socratic age. The Ionian era is marked with the works of Pythagoras (582-500 BC). Pythagoras is a well-known name in Greek history; however it is imperative to note that unlike Thales, Pythagoras’s mind worked in a primarily mathematical direction as opposed to a philosophical one. His name is synonymous with geometry and any individual can easily identify Pythagoras’s trademark theorem related to right-angled triangles. Apart from geometry and trigonometry, Pythagoras also portrayed a deep rooted interest in the fields of music and art and even incorporated mathematics into musical notes. His anti-utilitarian ideas about the government led him to form a circle of disciples that upheld the notions of equality and coexistence. As such, it can be seen that Pythagoras’s beliefs were not confined to geometry but also catered to sociological aspects of rational thought. He was very influential and imparted decrees to these disciples which they happened to follow religiously. So unlike his predecessors he did not thwart the notions of religious thought entirely, but found a way to balance his rational thoughts along with his traditional beliefs. So much so, that he is said to have strongly believed in life after death and metempsychosis. He wanted to bring forth an amalgamation of scientific and divine thought into Greek philosophy. (Hernandez 2006)
The Ionian period was then followed by yet another great thinker in Heraclitus. He belonged to the Ephesians school of thought. He is responsible for hypothesizing the notion of flow. Heraclitus hailed from a noble family and hence was the first aristocrat to be inducted in the Greek Philosophers’ hall of fame. Heraclitus went on to negate all of his acclaimed predecessors and interestingly propose that insipidity and impudence were inherent human natures. (Knierim 1999) He is as such often described as a cynic who had minimal faith in human attributes. His philosophical beliefs revolved around immovable morals and their inflexible pursuit. He has talked of ideas regarding self-mastery and staunch abstinence from sinfulness. He was in this regard the upholder of moralistic purification and the perfection of the human soul. His rebellious and rigid attitude has been of particular interest to historians.
His basic belief was that all things exist in a continuous state of flux and hence there is no such thing as a permanent entity. In other words, he believed that the space was actually a process instead of a static phenomenon. Heraclitus is said to have become rather unsocial towards the close of his life and equally preoccupied with the idea of permanent flow. His robust belief in the dynamism of all entities was what he based all his findings upon: from cosmology to theology. He is also said to a pantheist believing firmly that God was not as defined by Greek mythology but instead an immortal essence living within each individual soul. Extending from this faith was his theory of the ‘unity of opposites’ whereby he insinuated that all opposing forces exist in a natural state of equilibrium. For instance there is no night without day, no summer without winter and so on. Again this theory was in perfect harmony with his original theory of perpetual flux. Conclusively, it can be observed that Heraclitus’s theories were indeed all encompassing and once again showed a tendency to merge science with theological perspectives. (Harris n.d.)
We now transcend into the illustrious Eleatic Genre of Philosophy. It is ironic that Heraclitus’s successors went on to directly clash their view with his, stating that nothing is in a perennial state of flux. Parmenides was the thinker responsible for proposing that all entities are constant in nature and hence never change. Parmenides was once again, a nobleman and had the means that most of his Milesian and Ionian predecessors did not possess. He examined the area of lawmaking and permeated the Greek setup of law with his philosophical conjectures. Parmenides was accompanied by his premier disciple Zeno who also promulgated the same notions as his educator. It is for this reason that their philosophy can very much be studied simultaneously. One of the many stimulating suppositions provided by Parmenides was that the actual state of the external world was much different than what the human senses perceived; in this way the established thinker surreptitiously stated that human senses are subject to an inherent mediocrity, which can only be cured through educated logic. He equated his theories with divinity by suggesting that that logic and investigation lead a person to ‘the One.’ But contrary to theological inferences, his version of ‘The One’ was not an omnipotent divine being but instead a finite and material entity. He associated the existence of phenomena by the simple giveaway that people are able to think and speak of it: that is anything that a person can possibly conceive in his or her mind exists. In a way he was incorporating some deep truth of all supernatural or superstitious phenomena into his philosophies, which can be proven by the myriads of symbols in his notions. (Pennsylvania State University 1999)
Since Parmenides’ basic teachings are so deeply grounded in all things merely conceivable, his theories faced a lot of opposition from future generations. This is where Zeno stepped in to defend his master’s original school of thought. In doing so, Zeno presented a number of famous paradoxes. These were in essence arguments that were contradictions unto themselves meant to ultimately prove that motion is impossible. In this way Zeno aimed to reinforce Parmenides’ view that there is no such thing as flow and plurality. The most prevalent of these paradoxes were: ‘The Midway Problem’, the ‘Achilles and Tortoise’ paradox, the ‘Arrow’ and finally the ‘Stadium’, all of which being theories through which Zeno says that all distances are divisible into many parts and hence infinite and so an infinite distance cannot be covered in a limited amount of time. (Lynds 2003) Ultimately all of this era’s works generated much future debate and cemented the fact that multiplicity gives rise to contradictions. (Seyffert 1894)
In the following era of Acragas (490-430 BC) we come across the well-known works of Empedocles. First and foremost Empedocles can be credited for having postulated the existence of the four primordial elements: earth, air, fire and water. He also hailed from a well-off background and was a strong supporter of democratic governments along with being a scientist and a physician. (Knierim 1999) About Empedocles it was largely believed at the time that he was capable of miracles: supposedly controlling winds and even restoring lives. He flaunted this reputation in a grandiose manner, going to great lengths to portray himself as a deity. His most significant writings are based on natural phenomena, and he was able to integrate theories of flux and stagnation. He did so by recommending that dynamism is indeed true and at the same time reality is essentially constant, thereby solidifying the views of both Heraclitus and Parmenides. What is most appealing is that he fused the basic primordial elements with the elements of love and strife. (Knierim 1999) He believed that love was the ultimate unifying force in the universe which denoted absolute harmony, whereas strife was the principle of discord or chaos representing the universal dividing force. He further emphasized that under the influence of love, all elements unite to become ‘the One’ that is the divine and singular entity responsible for all natural phenomena. Conversely, he highlighted that strife was the major cause of utter destruction in the external worlds. He suggested that such forces exist in a cyclical pattern, being generated and destroyed in turns. Empirically speaking, this theory states that the sum of all things is zero, or can be cancelled out. This can be extended to the universal belief that energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only converted from one form to another.
Moving on, Empedocles had tremendous wisdom which can be proven by the fact that he predicted that the moon was not a luminous body but reflected sun light, and also that solar eclipses are caused by lunar motion. He also hypothesized that light takes time to travel from one position to another but this time is infinitesimal in quantity; he discovered the basic principles of centrifugal force and even set the foundations for the study of evolution and natural selection. It can therefore be concluded with regard to Empedocles that he presented many relevant and everlasting theories which form the foundation of most scientific works today. (Solmsen 1965)
As we progress into 500-428 BC, we stumble upon the Clazomenae period which is predominantly marked by the celebrated philosophies of Anaxagoras. Anaxagoras grew up in an era when the Greek city state of Athens was at the summit of various triumphs. It was the commencement of a golden age whereby the city state prospered both in terms of dominance and knowledge. (Knierim 1999) He was the follower of the Milesian school of thought and also largely agreed with Empedocles’ works. However he begged to differ with Empedocles’ ‘Love and Strife’ theory on grounds of lack of scientific evidence. He did however concur with Empedocles’ age old belief that everything is infinitely divisible and hence contains portions of all four primordial elements. He also proposed that the sum is greater than it parts and used snow as a pertinent case in point: he stated that snow contained both black as well as white fragments and the only reason as to why snow appears white is because it predominates the color black. (Knierim 1999) The crux of his theoretical work was the conjecture of separation. Anaxagoras argued that every object is formed due to a separation of matter, and all entities in the material world are derived from ‘the One’ being via constant dichotomization. In other words matter multiplies continuously and becomes infinitely more complex. (Sider 2005)
Anaxagoras is also often ascribed the foundations of psychology because he introduced the idea of the human mind, articulating that it was infinite in capacity and independent in nature. According to him the mind had final control over all other aspects of the soul. Apart from this, Anaxagoras also committed his mind to comprehending the technicalities of spiral phenomena and vortexes. He explained that the world was created through the rotational movement of a typical spiral whereby all matter was initially united and then divided by centrifugal force governed by the mind. In this way he clarified the phenomena of how mass is created. Anaxagoras’ galactic estimation is especially commendable because the Greek at that time had mo means of looking at the spiral constellation formations. As a matter of fact this notion was later dropped on the basis of lack of foolproof evidence. (Sider 2005)
We finally arrive at the closing stages of the pre-Socratic era, whereby Greek thought was highlighted was Leucippus and Democritus. This was an era when Greek philosophy reached a pinnacle of accuracy and introduced ideas very similar to modern day chemistry. The true properties of atoms and matter were untied and hence we call this time period the period of the Atomists. The details associated with Leucippus are rather obscure and it is merely assumed that he was an adherent of Empedocles’ philosophies. Democritus on the other hand, was the disciple of Leucippus and was a more prominent figure in terms of Atomist Greek philosophy. Democritus wrote myriads of scriptures whereby he intricately described the workings of matter, and as such gained credibility. He, like his master, disagreed with the Eleatic concept of all things being inherently one and change and motion being a chimera. And so, Democritus’ teachings were meant to overthrow the questionable logic of his predecessors. Democritus depicted space as a vessel of objects both stagnant as well as locomotive; he as such implied that space in itself was nothing more than an empty space. Leucippus and Democritus largely overlooked the paradoxes put forth by Parmenides and Zeno, and stated that change was very much real as opposed to illusionary. (Knierim 1999) They also defied the prior notions as to matter and confidently proposed that all substances consist of infinitesimally small and immeasurable particles called atoms. Atoms were then described as the building blocks of life meaning that they were described as indivisible in geometric terms. Furthermore, Democritus even quantified the formation of the mind and soul as matter oriented. Democritus went further in an attempt to explain the formation of matter by hypothesizing that atoms may collide to deflect each other or merge each other thereby forming new substances. The atomists hence can very much be regarded as the league that came closest to modern science. At the time their works were not appreciated because they debunked the nature of the Greek liaison with superstition. In spite of their theories being rather crude, it is undeniable that there estimations were remarkably astute. (Johnson 1945)
After Democritus, the pre-Socratic era came to an end and was then replaced by the highly illustrious Classical era of Greek philosophy, which was dominated by the great minds of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. There was the brief time period of the Sophists, primarily led by Protagoras. He is said to have specified that the existence of objects is dependent upon the mind of the observer, moreover the properties of phenomenal objects is also created in an individual’s mind whereas actual properties may be contradictory. Finally his anomalous viewpoints were taken over by the classical giants that the world relates most to today. Socrates is regarded as the philosopher who familiarized the common man with rationality. He is responsible for sowing the seeds of political philosophy and ethical beliefs. Plato carried these ideologies forward by accentuating the thought behind laws, republic and the state. The concept of governmental hierarchy can very much is attributed to the dedication of Plato. In fact he proposed the notion of the ‘Philosopher King’ who was ultimately responsible for reinforcing various constitutional decrees, as well as the ‘Republic’ whereby he articulates that the idea of such a city state is unfortunately chimerical. Moving on to Aristotle, it can fairly be stated that Aristotle was the master of a broad array of subjects such as physics, biology, zoology, botany, literature, politics, and ethics. He produced a number of works all of which undoubtedly ring true to this day. As a matter of fact, Aristotle is regarded by many as the quintessential definition of a complete philosopher on the basis of his relevant and ever pertinent work. The works of the Classical era are so vast in their approach that they are practically out of the scope of this thesis. However, it would be a grand anomaly to overlook the examinations of such maestros, with regard to how far the human race has come. (Russell 1972)
Regardless of whether we talk about one era or another, it is unambiguous that these philosophers instilled great thought and effort in shaping the scientific and logical realms of the modern world. Ancient Greek philosophy was the seed that has gradually flourished over the years and grown into the robust tree of Western civilization, and it would be a tremendous error to overlook the meticulous contributions of these great minds.
Baldwin, James Mark. “Development and Evolution: .” The Philosophical Review (Duke University Pres) 11 (November 1902).
Bielaczyc, Katerine, and Allan Collins. Fostering Knowledge-Creating Communities. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006.
Harris, William. “Heraclitus: The Complete Fragments.” Middleburry College.
Hernandez, Manuel. The life of Pythagoras. Northridge: California State University, 2006.
Johnson, Monte Ransome. “Democritus.” Classical and Mediveal Literature Criticism, 1945.
Kahn, Charles H. Anaximander and the Origins of Greek Cosmology. Philadelphia: Columbia Univeristy Press, 1994.
Knierim, Thomas. “Pre-Socratic Greek Philosophy.” The Big View Greek Philosophy. October 1999. www.thebigview.com (accessed 2013).
Lynds, Peter. “Zeno’s Paradoxes: A Timely Solution.” Wellington, 2003.
Pennsylvania State University. Parmenides by Plato. Pennsylvania State University, Penn State Electronic Classics, 1999.
Russell, Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972.
Seyffert, Oskar. “Dictionary of Classical Antiquities.” 1894. 480.
Sider, David. The Fragments of Anaxagoras: Introduction, Text and Commentary. 2. 2005.
Solmsen, F. “Love and Strife in Empedocles’ Cosmology.” Phronesis: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy (Brill) 10 (1965).
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