Rap Music – a Soundtrack of Revolution

Soundtrack of Revolution for the Generations of Rap Artists Since 1980s

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Revolution for the Generations of Rap Artists
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Hip hop is a culture that encompasses a vast corporation of artistic forms, which originated from marginalized subcultures within the South Bronx in New York City during the 1970s. This culture encloses four distinct elements, representing diverse manifestations of its founding reasons: the rap music (oral), disc jockey (turntablism), graffiti art (visual), and break-dancing (physical). Regardless of their controversial forms of execution, these artists find a general unity within their association’s manifestations of poverty, violence, and racism underlying the historical context of their cultural origin. This association served to provide reactionary outlets from the urbanization hardships which it underwent.

The cultural origin of hip hop stems from a chunk of parties of the Ghetto Brothers who would plug amps for their musical instruments and speakers into lampposts at Prospect Avenue and 163rd Street. Similarly, DJ Kool Herc performed the same at Sedgwick Avenue. These artists would mix several samples of existing musical records accompanied by their own musical shouts to the crowd and/or a group of dancers. Another tremendous force in the premature rap movement was Afrika Bambaataa with his group of the Zulu Nation. He could spin records and incorporate an element of cultural awareness in his spinning, and this was newly interesting his party crowds. History thereby coins these artists as the founding fathers of rap. Rap music has become the cornerstone of the hip hop culture. Since its inception, hip hop cultures spread like a bush-fire into both urban and sub-cultural communities throughout the world. Today, rap music that is a sub-element of hip hop culture has been the fastest evolving music genre within the U.S. And the rest of the world. This paper thereby intends to discuss endless efforts of rap artists to create a soundtrack of revolution for their generations, and to explain the evolution of rap music from its inception to the colossal industry it is today.

Background of the Hip Hop Culture and Rap Music

The origin of hip hop culture traces its roots back from 1970s within the South Bronx and streets of New York City. This culture is deeply rooted into the pain and experiences of Black-Americans during the era of slavery

. While in the working fields, slaves could often sing the songs of “call and answer.” Moreover, when the slaves attended their religious services, this trendy singing culture could continue regularly. This culture thereby prevailed in the Black-American churches even after the end of slavery. During 1970s, the duration within which the American music did not appear to be undergoing evolution, in the New York City, two deejays emerged: DJ Kool Herc and DJ Hollywood. These deejays had sufficient experience with the aging disco scenes that they got musical inspirations. They could pull records from their parents’ homes, and later begun to spin short sections on turntables at local parties after which they begun to use two turntables simultaneously. Thereafter, the cultures underwent tremendous changes following the efforts of rap artists and incorporations of other sub-elements. Afrika Bambaataa with his Zulu Nation group was another tremendous force during the early rap movements. Afrika was a deejay who could spin records at parties and parks. In his spinning, he incorporated some elements of cultural awareness hence creating a new and interesting sound to his crowd.

Notwithstanding its establishment by black youths from the streets, the influence of hip hop culture and rap music has become worldwide

. Research statistics reveals that approximately 70% of the rap audience are non-blacks.Hip hop encloses four elements: graffiti, break-dancing, disc jockey, and rap.

However, this paper will major on the rap music.

One is capable to differentiate a Filipino or Chinese rapper using similar slang, as well as the original Black American rapper. This it because the foundation of the hip hop language took place along the streets where street language was transmitted into the hip hop culture via the rap music

.For instance, the hip hop rappers may use adjectives such as da bomb, legit, hittin, dope, to describe any excellent activity or scenario regardless of the ethnic origin of the rapper. One of the most commonly used and popular word within hip hop culture and rap music is the term “nigga.” Therefore, the street language has become the dialect language of all sorts. Despite having a different first language, rap music artist can still understand the hip hop slang. As a result, it is possible to hear an Asian, white, or Latino rap artist saying “TJ is my nigga,” meaning “TJ is my good friend.” Vocabularies of this culture thereby transforms constantly with time. Today, whatever a person can term as a “cool statement” can turn out to be a rap lyric tomorrow, but become out of date just in a year or less.

Despite its controversial methods of execution, the hip hop culture finds its common ground of association to racial discrimination, poverty, violence, and oppression. All these underlie a historical context of its cultural foundation, which provides for a reactionary input from the above hardships. This was through a form of self-expression that could act to proclaim alternatives to life situations reflect upon the pros and cons of life, and challenge or evoke the circumstantial moods within an environment. One of the diversely positive effects of the hip hop culture is on its efforts of encouraging corporation among individuals.

DJ Hollywood, DJ Kool Herc, Afrika Bambaataa, and Busy Starski Bee are the widely popular artists credited for further devising the term “hip hop.” One can trace the commercial history of the rap music back in 1980 when the Sugar Hill Gang performed a successful song titled, Rapper’s Delight. As the message in rap music grew more cohesive and relevant, so did its interest from the people. Collective and continuous messages from the rap music told unspoken stories of the urban streets; violence, crime, and drug abuse. Regardless of how debauched the message was, the black urban youths established a platform for outward expression of their rage towards the entire American society.

DJ Kool Herc was a disc jockey who endeavored to incorporate the Jamaican style of disc jockeying via recitation of improvised reggae records. Inopportunely, the New York City’s interest was greater towards reggae music than the rap music during this period. In response, DJ Kool adapted a new rap style with an appealing sound that could please his audience. He thereby involved himself into the rap music by chanting over persecution or instrumental sections of any prevalent music of the day. With the emergence of disc jockeys, hip hop culture and rap music begun to spread through urban areas and streets of New York.

This marked the commencement of a new music genre by early 1980s. Following the evolution of this phenomena, party shouts became more intricate, and deejays begun to incorporate several rhymes into their rap music. As the rap music got its way through the urban communities of the New York City, lots of people begun using it as a mode of self-expression with unlimited boundaries. It had no set of formal rules, except being original and rhyming with the musical beats. Anybody could rap about an issue pertaining to his/her personal life, life at school or anything relating to American life.

A perfect example illustrating how the rap music and hip hop culture cuts across all ethnic boundaries is evident within the Asian communities. After the inception and successful development of hip hop culture, its influence extends further and beyond the limits of the New York City. In North Africa and the Middle East, rap has been a well-established and accessible platform for artistic expression and political protests. It is quite sensible to say that hip hop culture would take trace a root and flourish within the Arabian music scenes

. With its rhyme-based loud politics and lyrical styles, the genre can perfectly fit into the legacy of protest, political, and poetic consciousness that exists across North Africa and the Middle East. As a matter of fact, Nouri Gana wrote in a revolt and raps within the Arabian world “it is never farfetched to envisage that rap music originated from Arabic culture.”

Rap music emerged as one of the most controversial and distinctive music genres over the past few decades. A fundamental element of hip hop culture outlines the conditions and experiences of African-Americans who lived in the spectrum of marginalized circumstances, such as the racial stereotyping and stigmatization in order to struggle for survival within the violent conditions of Ghetto. In this context, the rap provided a kind of protest to the oppressed, a voice to the voiceless, and alternatives to cultural styles and identities for the marginalized communities. Thus, rap is not only music to dance or party to, but also a potent mode of cultural identity. It has been a powerful engine for cultural and socio-political expression, providing an informational platform and medium that describes the rage of Black-Americans facing oppression, minimal advancement opportunities, the changing street moods, as well as the everyday life of sheer survival. As a result, rap has been like a cultural virus, spreading its sounds, attitude, and images throughout all cultures (social and political bodies).

DJ Kool paved a leeway for hip hop culture across the entire world, for the new rap artists such as “Grandmaster Flash.” DJ Grandmaster Flash together with his group of the “Furious Five” were great innovators of hip hop, surpassing the rap genres of the party music origins in order to explore a wide scope of rap lyrics and sonic horizons. DJ Grandmaster Flash began to spinning musical records in his youth age in a team within the Bronx. While attending his technical school courses in electronics, Grandmaster was a deejay within some local disco trails

. With time, he developed a set of groundbreaking artistic techniques including phasing (manipulation of turntable speeds), back-spinning (repetition of brief sound snippets by manually turning the records), and cutting (movement between tracks at exact rates of sound beats). DJ Grandmaster Flash thereby created the fundamental music vocabularies that deejays continuously follow to date.

DJ Grandmaster Flash did not readily collaborate with other rappers till 1978 when he first teamed up with the fabulous Kurtis Blow. Afterwards, he begun to work with the Furious Five rappers Cowboy (Keith Wiggins), Melle Mel (Melvin Glover), Kid Creole (Nathaniel Glover), Rahiem (Guy Williams), and Mr. Ness (Eddie Morris). This group quickly grew to become a music legend group within the New York City and across its borders, attracting public attention to know Grandmaster Flash not only as a deejay, but also for his efforts towards the success of the Furious Five group in masterful rapping. This was an exceptional group known for both rap signatures trading and blending of lyrics.

During the events of DJ Grandmaster’s groundbreaking success, another rap music ground emerged out of the blues and snitched the buttons of the rapper’s dance chart. This group was known as the “Sugar Hill Gang.” Until recently, many people thought that this group (the Sugar Hill Gang) was the first rap group that raised up the foundation of what we have today as the world’s hip hop. This is not the fact about the foundation or establishment of rap music or the hip hop culture. The Sugar Hill Gang merely served to create a platform for radio friendly tunes, which the contemporary hip-hop terms as a “one hit wonder”

. Notwithstanding the popularity of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, the group did not record music until the “Rappers Delight” hit by the Sugar Hill Gangs, which confirmed the existence of high interest and market for the hip hop music releases. A year later, Grandmaster Flash and his group (the Furious Five) introduced “Supperrappin” lyrics followed by the Enjoy record brands.

In 1980, Grandmaster Flash, the Furious Five group, and the Sugar Hill Gang joined hands to produce and record a rap song titled “Freedom.” This hit achieved the rankof being in the top twenty among the national R & B. charts, selling up to over fifty thousand copies. Following this hit was the “Birthday Party” produced in 1981. As a matter of fact, the first and true landmark recording by the Furious Five group and Grandmaster Flash was “The Adventure of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel,” recorded in 1981. This introduced Flash’s techniques in “cutting” to fashion a stunning sound collage out of snippets of songs by Queen, Chic, and Blondies

. The subsequent effort by Grandmaster Flash and Furious Five group in 1982 was even more revelatory than before when the group recorded and produced “The Message.” This marked the first time for hip hop to become a vehicle not merely used for boasting and bragging, but for sharp social observation, with Melle Mel conveying a blistering rap providing details on the life realities within the ghetto areas. This record was a critical hit and enormous step towards solidification of the rap music as an essential and daily mode of musical expression.

During early 1980s a good number of people had begun to realize the potential of the developing hip-hop industry

. This rise was due to the concrete and stable foundation set by DJ Kool Herc in compliance with the viable and commercial success of the Furious Five group, DJ Grandmaster Flash, and the Sugar Hill Gang. Nobody realized this growing opportunity and took more advantage over this situation than the Run and DMC. The New York rappers DMC (Darryl McDaniels), DJ James Master Jay (Jason Mizell), and Run (Joe Simons) formally joined hands to form the “Orange Crush” during early 1980s, leading to the rise of Run DMC in 1982 upon their graduation from college. At childhood, McDaniels and Mizell had known each other in Hollis, New York where they attended the same kindergarten. Upon circulating demo tapes within the music industry, the three youths signed to Records of their Profiles, after which they produced an underground hit entitled “It’s like That.” Nevertheless, it was the single b-side; “Sucker MC’s” that fashioned the “buzz”

along the streets. This gave birth to most of prevalent terms within the hip hop culture and barely became a genre on its own. Statistics reveal that the “single” gave birth to the contemporary hip hop language and sounds (dream machine as the only instrument, fashioned image of a B-boy, plus scratching from turntable).

During the rise and success of the singles, their debut album received the highest sales in 1984, marking the first time of honorable bestowment on a rap act. Moreover, they gave an upper hand during the prestigious King Holiday (a tribute paid to Martin Luther King as a socio-political hero)

and the San City events (Artists Against Apartheid). They further broke into the mainstream two sides of the Atlantic in 1986 by releasing a heavy hit of rap collaboration “Walk This Way” (introducing Joe Perry and Steve Tyler of Aerosmith). This distinctive video captured the audience imaginations from both sides of the Atlantic. Evidently, “King of Rock” and “Rock Box” of earlier singles predicted this partnership, fusing both rap and rock.

By 1987, “Raising Hell” became the first rap album to knockout the R & B’s number one slot, the first to go platinum, and the first to sneak into the U.S. top ten rap music. This was after its massive and successful sales of approximately three million copies within the United States. Additionally, the “Run DMC” also became the first rap music group to video screening through MTV, the first to non-athletes to ratify Adidas products (a deal of sponsorship that followed the “Run DMC” track titled “My Adidas”), and the first to appear on the Rolling Stone cover

. In essence, the “Run DMC” put Hip Hop into a mainstream flow of the American society. This confirmed to the entire world that the Hip Hop and rap are here to stay.

During late 1980s, the Hip Hop movements were overwhelmingly progressing. The Music Television (MTV) led the rap music further and deep into sub-urban areas within the entire country. What begun merely in the Bronx, New York City as sparks and party starters was now spreading into other states such as the California and Los Angeles. The concert tour of “The Fresh Fest,” featuring Kurtis Blow, Run DMC, Newcleus, Whodini, and the Fat Boys, emerged to be the first big money making a tour for the Hip Hop. Towards the end of 1980s, the rap artists had begun to make various changes within the context of their Hip-Hop culture and materials. They shifted the rap music from the party-type view into social messages

. Consequently, the first rap music group to earn social fame via the social message oriented raps was the “Public Enemy.”

The Public Enemy served to re-frame the image of Hip Hop culture and rap music. After rewriting the rules of hip hop, the group became the most influential, but controversial rap group of the late years of 1980s as viewed by a number of people. The Public Enemy group established a deviation on hardcore rap that was majorly political and musical revolutionary by building from the Run DMC’s rise in “gangster rhyming” and the street oriented beats

. With his authoritative and powerful baritone, the leading rapper “Chuck D” commonly rhymed about diverse social problems, predominantly those that relate to the Black communities, often condoning the social activism and revolutionary tactics. Chuck D. always directed the hip hop explicitly towards the pro-Black consciousness and self-awareness that extendedly became the hip hop cultural signature rap music revolution throughout the proceeding decade.

The Public Enemy group was musically revolutionary just as their team of production, the Bomb Squad, which created comprehensive soundscapes relying on the avant-garde techniques of cut-and-paste, piercing sirens, deep funk, relentless beats, and the unrecognizable samples. This created an invigorating and chaotic rap music styles, making Chuck D’s forceful vocals intoxicating alongside the arborist raps by his hilarious counterpart; Flavor Flev. Flavor thereby became the group’s visual and focal point despite his obscurity within the music, due to his oversized clock that hanged from his neck and the comic sunglasses. When the rock and rap critics embraced the group during records of late 1980s and early 1990s, the Public Enemy often ran into controversies with its lyric and militant stance. This was particularly after the production of its 1988 album of “It takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back,” which drove the group into celebrity. During early 1990s, all the controversies settled down when the group entered hiatus, and it was now clear that the Public Enemy group was one of the American’s most radical and influential bands of the period.

By early 1990s, the rap music was already spreading from coast to coast and from urban to Suburban areas

. When the hip hop culture and artistic rap music works knocked the doors of Los Angeles

, the industry entirely transformed, entering the age of “gangster rap.” This new system had shaken up the entire globe, led by a group of artists named N.W.A. (Niggers With Attitude). The N.WA was an exceptional embodiment of the Los Angeles group and its outlook. This group comprised DJ Yella (Antoine Larraby), Dr. Dre (Andre Young), Eazy E (Eric Wright), MC Ren (Lorenzo Patterson), andIce Cube (Oshea Patterson) who was a founder member. These pioneers of “gangster rap” were violent, sexy, and unapologetic. This group broke the records as the most notorious since the conception of rap music. After rewriting of the hardcore rap rules by the Public Enemy, affirming that rap music could be revolutionary, intelligent, and socially ace and aware, N.W.A. emerged in late 1980s, capitalizing on the Public Enemy’s sonic innovations while disregarding the message. As their preferable alternative, N.W.A. celebrated the violence decadence of criminal life, capturing every aspect of it in blunt but harsh language. Formerly, N.W.A’s relentless spasm seemed to be a serious and vital commentary. “N.W.A. And The Posse” was the group’s first album, though they performed only four of the raps. “Straight Outta Compton” thereby counted as their first chief release.

Upon investigations of the “Straight Outta Compton’s” ill-reputed single entitled “Fuck The Police” in 1989 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Bureau set numerous actions against the N.W.A. In the American history of the music industry, this action marked the group as the first music artists to receive a threatening letter from the FBI. The next release from the group was “Efil4zaggin” (Niggaz4life spelled from left to right), which made America as the number one on the charts, also exceeded the factor of its predecessor’s outrage

. It reached this level through addressing the gang pedophilia and rape, alongside the conventional agenda of oral sex, prostitution, and cop killing. Nonetheless, conflicting egos bared the band from recording their third album. The producer Dr., Dre quit the group for a formal career in 1992. Even though the group was never active again, their impact, from their bass driven and funky beats, and the exaggerated lyrics prevailed throughout the 1990s

Rap music, which predominantly originated from the streets of New York City, underwent dominations by the laid back, mellow, and bass beats of the California. Really, from 1989 to mid-1990s, tales on the inner city life from the West Coast group within the Golden State uniquely controlled the rap industry

. The producer of N.W.A. (Dr. Dre) introduced Calvin Broadas (Snoop Dogg) to the world or hip hop. To embody the 1990s’ “gangster rap,” Snoop Dogg had to explore the lines between fiction and reality. Upon his introduction into the rap music culture by Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg swiftly became a famous rap star following his laconic rhyming lyrics, which appeared to be realistic, especially after his arrest for murder accomplice charges. This arrest certainly fortified his myth, supporting his debut album of 1993’s “Doggystyle,” which made him the first rapper to go into the music charts at number one.

During Snoop Dogg’s time, another rapper from the West Coast who was extremely popular was Tupac Skakur. He became the improbable martyr of the “gangster rap.” At the onset of his rap career, it was not clear if he could emerge as one of the famous and definitive rappers of 1990s. He began as a second-string dancer and rapper for “Digital Underground”

, but later in 1992 he released a much-admired debut album “2pacalypse Now” that he quickly followed by a concert in the urban drama juice. On the course of the subsequent year, Tupac’s profile substantially rose, basing on his run-ins with the rule as his music.

At the peak of 1994, Tupac matched Snoop Dogg to be the most controversial figure within the rap industry at the moment, spending as much of his time in the recording studio as he did in the prison. His outraging mythology assisted him produce his album of 1995 “Me Against the World,” which entered the rap charts at number 1, and also opened him up for facing exploration charges. As illustrated by the “Dear Mamma” (tribute paid to single mothers), Tupac was capable of violence as well as sensitivity

. Tension had been building up between the West and East rappers. As a result, Tupac Shakur and his label records represented the West while the Notorious B.I.G. And his label records represented the East, both heading for a musical feud.

Notorious B.I.G. (Christopher Wallace), a New York born rapper quickly gained courtesy for his work withJ. Mary Blige’s “What’s the 411?” By 1994, he released his debut album “Ready to Die,” which became one of the most prevalent albums of that year. By June 1995, Notorious B.I.G’s single “One More Chance” emerged at number 5 in the singles chart of pop, rooting Michael Jackson’s “Scream/Childhood” as the number 1 debuting single of the time. Nevertheless, “Ready to Die” continuously gained popularity all through 1995, selling up to 2 million copies. Following its success, Notorious B.I.G. appeared to be the most visible hip hop figure in the East Coast and also became a target for the fiery feud between the two figures; Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G.

Every rapper had to express his feelings through writing of distasteful songs of the other colleague’s affairs and it appeared as if it were to stay. Unfortunately, On September 13, 1996 when Notorious B.I.G. was doing preparations for a second album production, Tupac Shakur was shot dead in Las Vegas

. A number of reliable media sources speculated that Notorious B.I.G. And his company were responsible for the assassination of Tupac. However, another tragedy had been set in motion. On March 9, 1997 when Notorious B.I.G. was coming back from a party of Soul Training Award towards his hotel in Los Angeles, another car caught up with his car side-by-side and opened fire. He died instantly from a gun-shot, just six months from the killing of Tupac Shakur

. Tupac’s legend alongside Notorious B.I.G’s legend stayed to grow years later; thanks to the succeeding posthumous releases encompassing Tupac’s 2001 “Until the End of Time,” as well as Notorious B.I.G’s 1999 “Born Again.”

After the death of Notorious B.I.G. And Tupac Shakur, rap music began shifting towards radio friendly lyrics with an undertone of party time, but not abandoning the image of “gangster.” Today, female artists also began to enter the industry of rap music, for example, the “Miseducation of Lauren Hill” by Lauren Hill. Regardless of the male domination of rap music and hip hop culture the industry welcomed Lauren Hill with both arms open.

Currently, the reigning King of hip hop across the entire world is Jay-Z (Shawn Carter). It would be very hard and effortless to imagine of a more successful rap artist than Jay-Z. After a challenging childhood within Brooklyn neighborhood, he had a remarkable ascent to the peak of the rap industry. Shawn followed his instincts of confidence, beginning from his personal record label. Jay-Z’s debut album “Reasonable Doubt” was a critical and favorite music among his audiences. However, it was not until 3rd album “Hard Knock Life” when Jay-Z surpassed acclaimed status to extensive conventional success; thanks to the sequence of massive hits. He further embarked on a large scale arena tours, uplifting his popularity to the most amazing heights. By the end of 1990s, Jay-Z became the most popular rapper across the globe.

During late 1990s, rap music conquered the world and the top performer could put on the show for as low as $50, and later towards the end of 1990s, the typical price necessitated by the top rap performers was between thirty to fifty thousand dollars. Rap music evolved from within the inner corners and streets of the New York City. Over time, rap has become one of the world’s leading businesses today

. During its foundation, rap music appeared to be a fad and a number of people thought that it could fade out. This was just a colossal misconception since the rap music and hip hop culture are now here with us to live forever.

Supposing the message of peace, love, human uplift, and anti-racism get echoed among the culture and population of hip hop, then it can have a deep impact on ethnic relationships within the modern society. During 1960s and 1970s, the “Beat Culture”

commonly passed the message of love. This challenged the status quo or compromises the hip hop’s rebellious spirits. In the same context, it is possible for rap artist from the hip hop culture to keep up its rebellious street flavor, but speak about issues such as respect and love for all human races. Today, several number of rap artists such as Wyclef Jean, Busta Rhymes, and Master P. can empower the world of youths, as well as the entire America on positive perception about life and career pursuant. For instance, they can empower young youths just as John Lennon, Bob Marley, and Bob Dylan did. Rap artists such as the late Tupac Shakur passed messages about compassionate issues minus misplacing the street’s rugged flavor. In his rap song “I Wonder If Heaven’s Got a Ghetto,” Tupac passes a message about the equality of human races.

Dissimilar to any other subculture within the history of the United States, the hip hop culture transcends ethnic boundaries through rappers’ efforts. Since the hip hop culture has a wide-ranging audience, it has a high opportunity of mending ethnic relations and building ethnic bridges across the entire world. The culture holds and permeates significant regions within the globe. In the contemporary hip hop culture, music styles, mannerisms, lexicon, and clothing are unmistakably similar within the New York City, Paris, Milan, Zurich, Tokyo, and Los Angeles. Definitely, the hip hop culture has the potential of making it imperturbable not to involve in hate crimes, not to be misogynistic, homophobic, discriminative, and/or not to be racist as opposed to the historical view of the hip hop image.


Brewster, Bill and Frank, Broughton. Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc

Jockey. New York, NY: Grove Press, August 2000.

Chris, Dickinson. 3-CD Set Chronicles History of Rap. Everyday Magazine, January 4, 1998, 3.

Fernando, Shem. The New Beats. New York, NY: Anchor Books Doubleday, 1994.

Geneva, Smitherman. Black Talk: Words and Phrases From The Hood To The Amen Corner.

Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1994.

Gregory, Lewis. Hip Hop Gives Birth to Its Own Black Economy. The San Francisco Examiner,

6.1 (1998): 27-59.

Keith, Alexander. Hip-Hop Magazine Gets Fiery Start, Good and Bad. USA Today, 67.4, (1998):


Light, Alan. Vibe History of Hip Hop. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, November 1999.

Linda M. Carlstone. Teens and Fashion, Baggy Still Rules, But More Than Ever, Anything Goes.

Chicago Tribune, Sec. 1:1, June 1, 1997.

Michiko, Kakutani. Common Threads: Why Are Homeboys and Surbanites Wearing Each Other’s

Clothes? The New York Times Magazine, February 16, 1997, 18.

Ogg, Alex., David, Upshal., and Alexander, Ogg. The Hip Hop Years: The History of Hip Hop.

New York, NY: Trans-Atlantic Publications, September 1999.

Patricia, Rose. Fear of a Black Planet: Rap Music and Black Cultural Politics in the 1990s. The

Journal of Negro Education, 60.3, (1991): 87-99.

Perkins, William and Eric, Droppin. Science: Critical Essay on Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture

(Critical Perspectives of the Past). Philadelphia: Temple University Press, October, 1995.

Robert, Hilburn. Year in Review/Pop Music; In the Shadow of Hip-Hop; Rap is Where the Action

is, and it’s Popularity Still Hasn’t Peaked. Could Rock ‘N’ Roll Be Finally Dead?” The Los

Angeles Times, 27.6 (1998): 212-219.

Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America (Music and Culture). San Francisco: Wesleyan University Press, May 1994.

Scott, Cathy. The Killing of Notorious B.I.G.. Los Angeles: Huntington Press, September 1997.

Scott, Cathy. The Murder of Tupac Shakur. New York, NY: Martin’s Press, October 1997.

William, Perkins. Droppin’ Science: Critical Essays on Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.


Gregory, Lewis. Hip Hop Gives Birth to Its Own Black Economy. The San Francisco Examiner, 6.1 (1998): 27-59.

Ibid, 28.

Brewster, Bill and Frank, Broughton. Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey. New York, NY: Grove Press, August 2000.

Geneva, Smitherman. Black Talk: Words and Phrases From The Hood To The Amen Corner. Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1994.

Ibid, 216.

Chris, Dickinson. 3-CD Set Chronicles History of Rap. Everyday Magazine, January 4, 1998, 3.

Brewster, Last Night a DJ Saved My Life, 311.

Brewster, Last Night a DJ Saved My Life, 153.

Keith, Alexander. Hip-Hop Magazine Gets Fiery Start, Good and Bad. USA Today, 67.4, (1998): 134-143.

Michiko, Kakutani. Common Threads: Why Are Homeboys and Surbanites Wearing Each Other’s Clothes? The New York Times Magazine, February 16, 1997, 18.

Gregory, Hip Hop Gives Birth to Its Own Black Economy, 34.

Chris, 3-CD Set Chronicles History of Rap, 42.

Keith, Hip-Hop Magazine Gets Fiery Start, Good and Bad, 139.

Linda M. Carlstone. Teens and Fashion, Baggy Still Rules, But More Than Ever, Anything Goes. Chicago Tribune, Sec. 1:1, June 1, 1997.

Patricia, Rose. Fear of a Black Planet: Rap Music and Black Cultural Politics in the 1990s. The Journal of Negro Education, 60.3, (1991): 87-99.

Linda, Teens and Fashion, Baggy Still Rules, but More than Ever, Anything. 231.

Patricia, Fear of a Black Planet, 93.

Perkins, William and Eric, Droppin.Science: Critical Essay on Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture (Critical Perspectives of the Past). Philadelphia: Temple University Press, October, 1995.

William, Perkins. Droppin’ Science: Critical Essays on Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

Fernando, Shem. The New Beats. New York, NY: Anchor Books Doubleday, 1994.

Fernando, The New Beats, 153.

Patricia, Fear of a Black Planet, 95.

Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America (Music and Culture).San Francisco: Wesleyan University Press, May 1994.

Light, Alan. Vibe History of Hip Hop. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, November 1999.

Patricia, Fear of a Black Planet, 89.

Ogg, Alex., David, Upshal., and Alexander, Ogg. The Hip Hop Years: The History of Hip Hop.New York, NY: Trans-Atlantic Publications, September 1999.

Robert, Hilburn. Year in Review/Pop Music; In the Shadow of Hip-Hop; Rap is Where the Action is, and it’s Popularity Still Hasn’t Peaked. Could Rock ‘N’ Roll Be Finally Dead?” The Los Angeles Times, 27.6 (1998): 212-219.

Ogg, The Hip Hop Years: The History of Hip Hop, 201.

Scott, Cathy. The Murder of Tupac Shakur.New York, NY: Martin’s Press, October 1997.

Scott, Cathy. The Killing of Notorious B.I.G.. Los Angeles: Huntington Press, September 1997.

Rose, Black Noise, 119.

Light, Vibe History of Hip Hop, 201.

Fernando, The New Beats, 117.

Michiko, Common Threads. 29.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper