Ensuring patients are safe while they are the healthcare facility is the final goal for whichever hospital manager. If patients are ready to have faith in you with their care, giving back that assurance by guaranteeing they remain as healthy as conceivable is important. However, there are recurrent hindrances to the safety of patients, ones that the facility must be addressed before they get out of hand. Besides guaranteeing patients remain healthy, there is yet another reason to highlight the safety of patients; the fiscal benefit. According to recent research by Haight, Wetz, Daves, & Olumese, (2018), negative patient safety occurrences in Europe and the U.S. will lead to more than $380.6 billion cost burden in the coming five years. Core patient safety concerns include medical and drug provision inadequacies, hand hygiene within healthcare facilities by staff, and incongruent electric health record structures. This essay addresses hand hygiene within healthcare facilities by workers as a patient safety concern.

Hand Hygiene within Healthcare Facilities by Staff

Hand hygiene is regarded as the basic measure to stop healthcare-related infections since healthcare staffs’ hands are the utmost usual path of spread for micro-organisms in the course of care provision. Hand hygiene is a fragment of conventional and seclusion protections and at the center of complicated approaches to inhibit particular kinds of infections, for example, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary catheter- and vascular catheter-related infections, and surgical site infections. Stringent adherence to hand hygiene instructions has been established to lessen these infections by up to 79% in some environments. The approaches used for hand hygiene in the course of patient care comprise hand washing with either medicated or plain soap and using alcohol-based hand sanitizer. These last measures against the mainstream fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Additionally, hand hygiene amenability is reportedly much greater with alcohol-based hand sanitizer application.

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Irrespective of the practice of hand hygiene is a modest operational action for inhibiting healthcare-linked infections, poor amenability amongst healthcare workers is the main issue globally. Omitted and insufficient hand washing or hand sanitizer by health staff enables conveyance of micro-organisms to another client or a lifeless item that will come into straight interaction with a client. Contaminated health staff hands are linked to prevalent hospital-acquired infection epidemics. Best hand hygiene behavior is thus regarded as the keystone of inhibiting hospital-acquired infections.

The World Health Organization (WHO) created and instituted hand hygiene directives for use in healthcare environments in 2009 (Funabashi, Pohlman, Mior, O’Beirne, Westaway, De Carvalho, Vohra, 2018). It inspired healthcare amenities and healthcare staff to implement them to raise better responsiveness and comprehension of the significance of hand hygiene amongst healthcare staff. To enable stress-free identification of chances for hand hygiene by health personnel and meet requirements for training, amenability measurements and similar routine reporting, five instants for hand hygiene method were instituted. This method highlights five critical instants in the possible spread of pathogens accountable for hospital-acquired infections through health staffs’ hands. The five critical instants comprise the practice of hand hygiene prior to touching a client, prior to conducting an aseptic, sterile, or clean procedure, after body fluid contact risk, after coming in contact with a client and after coming in contact with patient surroundings or environment.

Regardless of the effortlessness of hand hygiene practices, amenability with hand hygiene directives and actions by health staff is still inadmissibly low; normally well less than 50% in many healthcare environments. Health staff face hindrances in adhering to hand hygiene directives at various times and levels. Inadequate or very low hand hygiene amenability proportions have been reported from both developing and developed nations. Hand hygiene routine differs based on workload and many other aspects. Practicing hand hygiene prior to coming in contact with a client is the most essential instant for inhibiting the cross spreading of infections. Comparatively lower rates of amenability with hand hygiene practices have been documented at this instant and this observation has been explained by an intrinsic propensity of health staff to practice hand hygiene only when they notice their hands to be ardently dirty, that is, after coming in contact with a client, instead of electively to safeguard others.

There are several aspects linked to poor observance to suggested hand hygiene practices amongst health staff. Some of these aspects comprise; professional grouping other than nursing; male sex, interference in the course of patient care engagements, overcrowding and understaffing, insufficiency of sinks, inopportunely placed sinks, lack of cleanser and throwaway paper towels, lack of awareness, familiarity, and education on hand hygiene protocols or directives, lack of dynamic involvement in hand hygiene campaign at personal or formal rank, lack of formal primacy for hand hygiene and lack of managerial authorizations for non-compliers. Religious beliefs and cultural background have been mentioned as possible factors of modest hand hygiene practices.

The use of alcohol-based hand wipe is regarded the gold average for the routine of hand hygiene in healthcare situations based on the substantiation of better microbiological efficiency, duration of time needed to attain the anticipated effect, point of client-care convenience and a better skin easiness profile. Significant advancement is being in healthcare amenities globally in attempts to lessen healthcare-linked infections by complying with hand hygiene commendations.

Legal and Ethical Consequences of Not Addressing Hand Hygiene within Medical Facilities by Staff

Progressively consideration has centered on infectious illness and its impacts on the safety of the community and the safety of employees. It is supposed that as consideration is centered on the risks and concerns that link to infection prevention that we must all explore the daily ethical impacts of offering care for clients and societies in connection to inhibiting and managing infections.

When difficult circumstances emanate, like perceiving non-amenability with hand hygiene, the nurse has to remember to engage nursing leaders in the decision-making procedure and to meticulously adhere to the formal order of directive besides procedure and policy when reporting the concern (Behlül, Bektarganova, & Artaç Ozdal, 2019). The nurse must similarly thoroughly reflect on how their inaction or action may affect the nurse individually besides professionally. The nurse has to bear in mind the aspect of aptness when regarding how to react to a challenging circumstance. Eventually, all nurse must endeavor to establish a custom of no culpability and shared reminding since healthcare is renowned as a group effort, and each health care supplier’s basic focus must be on the safety of the client.

Infection prevention is everybody’s accountability for healthcare experts, visitors, and patient. Therefore, unit-based nurse leaders have to keep evaluated of their institution’s infection prevention policies and initiatives and to work to foster a custom that anticipates and upholds infection prevention practices, particularly including hand hygiene consistently.

The ethical philosophy of fairness indicates that health care institutions develop corrective strategies that regard all workers justifiably when infection prevention strategies and processes are not enacted reliably.

Nurse leaders have to be visible in the hospital environment to support and role model the personnel nurse’s efforts to uphold infection prevention practices all through the inter-disciplinary health care personnel. Nurse leaders might want to consider offering employee nurses with the chance to practice communication approaches and to role play that center on the art of analysis and uphold a custom of shared reminding founded on the underlying notion of doing what is right for the client. The employee nurses could enact role-playing their abilities in a safe setting, such as with players acting as consistent healthcare experts or acquire fresh communication aptitudes at ongoing education openings using a number of self-help volumes.

Evidence-based Interventions, Including Technology, to Address Hand Hygiene within Medical Facilities by Staff

Health-acquired infections (HAIs) are responsible for almost 1.8 million infections and 98,000 linked mortalities every year (Jiang, Tian, Yan, Li, Fang, Peihang, Liu, 2019). The number one means to prevent these infections is hand hygiene, based on the WHO and CDC. The Joint Commission promotes the following recent WHO or CDC hand hygiene directives to enhance hand hygiene amenability and lower the prevalence of HAIs. Hand hygiene in the perioperative environment comprises of two elements: hand washing, which disinfects the hands and lowers spread of HAIs. It is recommended that a sterile hand rub, water and antiseptic, or water and soap, if the hands are not noticeably dirty, might be used; operating hand scrub, which is conducted prior to an operation or other intrusive processes before antiseptic gloves are put on. This scrub could be conducted with water-assisted brushless operating hand sanitizers, brushless and waterless operating hand antiseptics, or conventional operating hand scrub using a scrubber.

The core evidence-based points for hand hygiene in the perioperative environment could be abridged as follows:

  • Maintain natural fingernails short and stay away from wearing artificial nails or nail polish. Flaked nail polish could infect the antiseptic setting of the glove when the glove reliability is interfered with; gels, artificial nails, resins, and acrylics, have been indicated to haven microorganisms that cause operating site infections.
  • Stay away from wearing, and eliminate bracelets and watches prior to washing hands.
  • Apply hand lotions that are amenity offered and endorsed. Certain hand lotions have elements that damage the effectiveness of the hand hygiene items or interfere with the reliability of latex gloves. Your amenity infection prevention expert and the item assessment board should evaluate the item information for all of the amenity-endorsed hand hygiene agents, gloves, and hand lotions to be certain that all items are attuned.
  • Employ a consistent process for hand washing on getting into the perioperative region, prior to and after every client contact, prior to putting on individual protecting apparatus or gloves and after doing away with gloves, after touching blood or possibly infectious surfaces and materials, prior to and after eating, prior to and after using the washroom, and when hands are noticeably dirty. If your operating client has or is alleged of having Clostridium difficile, wash your hands with water and soap, alcohol-based hand hygiene items do not eliminate difficile microorganisms.
  • Wash hands amid each operating process.
  • Adhere to the manufacturer’s guidelines for use of hand hygiene items, alcohol-based hand scrubs, and operating hand scrub. Effectiveness is utmost when these products are correctly used.
  • Healthcare staff must receive competency and education evaluation on operating hand hygiene products.
  • When conducting a conventional operating hand scrub, use a scrubber rather than a brush.
  • Written operating hand hygiene strategies must be freely available and assesses yearly by a multi-disciplinary group that entails the worker health nurse, infection prevention expert, and OR personnel.

Strategies to Overcome Specific Organizational Barriers to Change

Hospitals are difficult organizations to change. Public owned and run hospitals even more so. In the coming years, enhancing patient safety is still a primacy for health care facilities. Enhanced changed management capacities are not simply admirable, they are mandatory for attaining and upholding patient safety enhancements. If health care facilities are to reform their procedures for providing care to uphold patient safety, the sense of organizational change should begin to steer patient safety enterprises (Jones, Aylward, & Jones, 2019). Luckily, well-recorded instances of effective reforms crosswise organizations in other businesses offer a suitable model for health care organizations formulating to initiate comparable reforms. Particular suggestions for health care organizations include the following:

The change should constantly aim at many organizational elements

Organizational front-runners should involve in firm diagnostic thinking prior to concluding the reaction to change. Particularly, they should evade the spontaneous reaction of considering the issue as completely technological or medical and merely attempting harder, and become open to the necessity for more basic organizational change.

Participants the provisioning procedure should take a distinct position in handling change

Top leadership should take an active position in instituting patient safety as an essential and critical primacy, nurturing an alliance of strong elements, comprising top managers and health care personnel, modeling the wanted conducts, committing more time and assets to organizational development appropriate to patient safety, and expecting and solving the unavoidable issues that will ensue. Individuals engaged directly in offering care should take part in keenly in enacting change.

The change should be enacted using support systems and many methods incorporated in a long-standing strategy.

Support systems committed to patient safety should guide a thoroughly designed structure of approaches that are constant with each other and concurrent with the aim of change.

The change should be established by offering health care staff with the capacities and chances to engage in constant safety progress.

This will need restructuring the duties of health care personnel at the point of care and retraining them to accomplish these duties.

Certainly, the above is a challenging list of necessities. However, few organizations have reformed themselves minus adhering to these values. Eventually, the crucial disparity between health care organizations that thrive in intensely enhancing patient safety and one that will come down to operative change management capacities.


Many organizations offer unrestricted resources to health care suppliers to aid with the amenability of hand hygiene criterions. For example, WHO has hundreds of assets comprising scientific substantiation to support their commendations for hand hygiene, besides stress-free enactment directives and training assets that could be adjusted for application in whichever healthcare environment. Hand hygiene is not merely the utmost essential infection prevention practice that equally health care employees and clients could perform, but it is amongst the simplest and utmost affordable. A lack of suitable hand hygiene could have a seriously damaging effect on both finances and patient death.



Behlül, S., Bektarganova, D., & Artaç Ozdal, M. (2019). Impact of Effective Management of Hospital Acquired Infections in Ensuring Patient Safety: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Ekev Academic Review, 245–254. Retrieved from

Funabashi, M., Pohlman, K. A., Mior, S., O’Beirne, M., Westaway, M., De Carvalho, D., … Vohra, S. (2018). SafetyNET Community-based patient safety initiatives: development and application of a Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Survey. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association62(3), 130–142. Retrieved from

Haight, J. M., Wetz Jr., H. F., Daves, L. J., & Olumese, O. D. (2018). PATIENT SAFETY: Hospital Technicians & Information Overload. Professional Safety63(12), 24–29. Retrieved from

Jiang, K., Tian, L., Yan, C., Li, Y., Fang, H., Peihang, S., … Liu, M. (2019). A cross-sectional survey on patient safety culture in secondary hospitals of Northeast China. PLoS ONE14(3), 1–11.

Jones, A., Aylward, R., & Jones, A. (2019). Enhanced supervision: new ways to promote safety and well-being in patients requiring one-to-one or cohort nursing. Nursing Management – UK26(3), 22–29.

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