Sports Shoes Turkey
Sports Shoes and Sports Clothing Market and Trends in Turkey
Brief History of Turkey
Turkey is an internationally recognized center for sports enthusiasm and participation. The interest in sports is culturally bound both historically and as an aspect of Turkey’s general international cosmopolitan nature. This is especially true as a result of the modern emphasis on European involvement and a relatively open international but specifically western travel emphasis both to and from the nation. Aspects of western influence, but specifically UK influence are bound in the Turkish culture as a result of years of European and other allied assistance to overthrow what remained of the Ottoman Empire and collectively remove occupying forces from Greece from the nation. Turkey was in fact the only nation that negotiated a treaty with the Allied forces at the close of WWI and became independent of the old established government and encroaching allied powers as well as the short occupation of the nation by Greece.
An independent Turkey was born in the modern era, and European cooperation was the resulting national trend in government and business. As a mater of rational congress, individual and state sponsored cooperation was offered to European entities to facilitate profit and the export of goods that were thought essential to Europe and therefore Europeans and their traders were willing to pay well for. One clear example of this is the age old spice trade that could not reach Europe without some transgression across Ottoman lands.
To some degree the centralization of power also demanded the continued centralization of economic dominance, by the state, so these age old compromises and pacts that were the development of regional propriety began to be seen by the central government as in need of its own official stamp. So, as an extension of the egalitarian manner in which individual principalities and faiths were allowed relative independence the state created trade capitulations to further develop European trade control.
In the early modern period the Ottoman government did not conceive of such capitulations as treaties between equals. Rather, the Ottomans imagined the foreigners as members of a particular taife, or group, living within their polity. 15 Just as the state bestowed particular privileges upon religious, economic, and social clusters, so did it grant certain favors to subjects of foreign states; just as the state required from its subjects taxes and imposed upon them sumptuary conditions in return for these privileges, so did it demand from foreign merchants and envoys a surcharge upon goods traded and certain restrictions in residences and attire.
Eventually, these capitulations became strong incentive to enter into yet another power play for dominance. Additionally, these early capitulations and their later renewal with European nations and trade organizations led to diplomatic communication, which in turn led to a Europeanization of the republic of the old Ottoman guard and the later Republic of Turkey. To some degree this placed the empire in a position of equality with Europe.
In the climate of the competing interests of the Ottoman empire, there is a clear sense that the biggest challenges, they faced, outside of their own internal conflict was the competition of the European powers. The change from a militaristic society to one that was built on trade and technological development challenged the empire in that it created a competition system that the Ottomans were not pre4pared to meet. Though in the early days the empire had been strongly focused on intellectual and technological development, there is a clear sense that this goal got lost along the road, with social and political upheaval and the struggle for daily control and order.
In contrast to the early modern expansionist period of the Ottoman Empire, backed by its efficient military-bureaucratic structure, it was the inherent conservatism of the nineteenth-century regime which allowed the whole system to stagnate. The emphasis on tradition stifled the intellectual vibrancy that had characterised Islamic culture before the 1500s, and compromised its former military supremacy. All this was happening at a time when western Europe was developing rapidly. New advances in agriculture, in technology, in transport and in communications gave the West the ability to project its power beyond Europe. The Ottoman Empire did not develop a strong bourgeois class, beyond the old merchant elites, and there was therefore economic as well as intellectual stagnation. The conservatism of the privileged ruling elite in Constantinople, corrupt military leaders and the relative decline of the Ottoman economy compared with the industrial, commercial and financial ‘take-off’ of the West left the empire in a dilapidated state. Rising inflation, worsened by financial mismanagement, embezzlement of state revenue… any physical protest by the empire’s impoverished subjects was met with severe repression since the army was the last institution, and a remarkably resilient one, to be able to uphold Turkish rule…. The provincial cavalry armies which had protected the frontiers of the empire were rendered obsolete by the Europeans’ advances in musket technology
The development of a desire to modernize did occur and yet the empire was at a serious disadvantage, as the economy of the empire could not bear the burden of infrastructural and economic change and development. The desire to modernize, to some degree came to little and to late for the empire
To modernise, the Ottomans had to pay for the new technology. Yet their traditional exports in silks, textiles and spices were being rapidly undercut by robust European currencies, faster ships that could carry greater volumes of cheap goods, and mass produced textiles that were more cost-effective than hand-made fabrics. However, in the face of this new competition, the conservative leaders fell back on their faith in the ‘inherent superiority’ of Islam. In doing so they lost any effective power over the periphery of their empire, and, by the twentieth century, over Turkey itself.
Being that all these trade agreements and standards were in place during the Ottoman empire, and were in many ways agreeable and positive for the new independent state many of them retained their hold on the nation as principle after independence had been established and as a result of the negotiating influence of the WWI Allied powers. Turkey in fact is still ingrained in the development of a membership in the European Union and EU member states are Turkey’s leading trade partners in the world, in all trades with a high level of Sports trade occurring between the EU and turkey.
Sports Enthusiasm in Turkey
The resulting, open door trade policy and the cultural influence of it resulted in the development of a strong sports culture, focusing emphatically on European style sports and enthusiasm in additional to traditional Turkish sports such as oil wrestling. The resulting collectivity and connectivity made Turkey into one of the regions most ardent manufacturing and trade centers, as if had been historically, but with a modern emphasis, which bleeds over into Turkey’s relatively strong position in trades like sports memorabilia and gear, including athletic shoes and apparel.
Sports enthusiasm and infrastructure, was in fact a large part of the modernization of Turkey, under the reign of Ataturk and those modern rulers who followed.
In the modern world football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Turkey, with a large majority hold on the population who overwhelmingly support the competitive nature of the game and many aspects of trade supporting it. In fact the cultural and modernization revolutions stressed by Ataturk, as the first modern leader of post ottoman Turkey supported greater development of voluntary organizations, such as sports clubs and increased industrialization and trade modernity surrounding sports gear, including athletic shoes and clothing. This trend has only grown today as the modern Turkey boasts a large part of European and other international trade in shoes and apparel, a large part of which is focused on casual and athletic apparel and gear. Turkey is in fact 11th among the top players in athletic shoe manufacture and retail, much of which is marketed locally and in the Americas and in Eastern and Western Europe.
Turkish sports enthusiasm can be categorized into three main groups, while they are certainly not mutually exclusive; football/soccer enthusiasts (Turkey has a growing influence over the European football associations and is increasingly involved in competition between all the leagues of Europe oil wrestling (traditional Turkish sport) enthusiasts and lastly those who are involved in water sports and other outdoorsy sports offerings. Though there are many other sports followed by and participated in by Turkish nationals and tourists alike, with the major state emphasis being on Olympic sports this very simple diagram shows the predominance of sports as a pastime and personal activity in the nation.
As one can see from the above diagraph football is by far the most popular sport in the nation, and it is supported by many trade and business outlets, a great many of which are franchised from the U.S. And Europe (supported by Chinese and other manufacturers), with a few essential national brands. The same can be said of all sports in Turkey, yet football seems to hold the greatest attention from the consuming public, with the most sales being associated with football shoes and other gear. Turkey, clearly has a proud and longstanding history with sports and sports enthusiasm. Sports, as a cultural access point in fact is written into the Turkish constitution, as an aspect of cultural and personal growth goals for the entire nation.
Turkey is one of the rare countries in the world which has an article related to sports in her Constitution. Article 59 of the Constitution says, “The State takes measures to develop the physical and mental health of Turkish citizens of all ages and encourages the spread of sports among the masses. The State protects successful athletes.” In recent years, with investments made in the field of sports, scientific research and the increase in importance placed by the State on sports policy, sports in Turkey became a well-liked and interesting event both as a performance sport and for the utilization of free time. Activities are continuing for sports, which became an essential passion and a way of life in the developed countries of the world, to take the place it deserves in Turkey just before the twenty-first century as an important social activity. With this objective, sports engaged in by the masses are encouraged, that is one of the basic components of raising a physically and mentally healthy society, the concentration is being directed at all the areas of Olympic sports rather than on a single branch, the predominance of the state is being decreased while the contribution of the private sector is increased and measures are being taken for the rational utilization of the facilities.
Galatasaray Football (Soccer) Team celebrating the UEFA cup Championship in 1999-2000 season
The current trend in Turkey, supported by the state is for the development of competitive athletes, in both team and individual Olympic sports. Traditional state support and massive individual sports enthusiasm has also led to a significant number of private clubs and organizations, supporting football/soccer and other sports. This participation begins with the very young and continues to a professional adult competitive level and is highly ingrained in the culture of the nation.
Sport in Turkey is being encouraged and supported by the state and sports clubs are given financial aid. The main targets of the sports policy of the state are to increase the number of athletes, to attain superior successes at international sports competitions, to prepare suitable sports environment for encouraging and providing for every individual at every age to engage in sports activities. Large sports facilities and investments in Turkey are realized by the state to a great extent. However, an important increase in the number of sports facilities of sports clubs and private organizations can be mentioned with the start of the development of the perception of sponsorship and marketing of sports in recent years. Of the total 2,574 sport facilities in Turkey, 261 belong to the private sector.
State supported events and clubs pepper the nation, in addition to private clubs, which often receive support and sponsorship from the state authority, the highest of which is the Directorate General of Youth and Sports, a subsidiary annexed to the Prime Ministry.
The Directorate General, which was established in 1938, has provincial directorates that perform its services in 81 provinces. A total of 6,499 personnel are working for the central and provincial organization of the Directorate General. Referees, provincial representatives, coaches, observers, etc. also undertake voluntary duties at the organization.
Again the stress of the state officiated and supported programs is to support Olympic sports, while others are included as national interest in them waxes and wanes.
Within the structure of the Directorate General, there are, currently, 37 sports federations. These are Marksmanship and Hunting, Track and Field, Basketball, Horseback Riding, Bicycling, Boxing, Badminton, Ice Sports, Billiards, Bridge, Gymnastics, Mountaineering, Fencing, Wrestling, Golf, Weightlifting, Handball, Scouting, Judo, Karate, Skiing, Rowing, Table Tennis, Archery, Automobile Sports, Underwater and Water Skiing, Chess, Tennis, Taekwon-do, Volleyball, Body building, Swimming, Sailing, Handicapped, Universities, Traditional Sports Branches and Sports-for-All. The Turkish Soccer Federation became autonomous in 1992. Furthermore, certain sports are performed within the structure of sports clubs or by citizens in spite of there not being federations for these sports in Turkey.
The national and regional governments are highly involved in the development of sports in Turkey and in fact the goals and standards of the sports programs in Turkey are decided on and developed annually by the Prime Minister in the form of Sports Education Plans, at the bequest of needs and requests coming from national and provincial Directorates of Youth and Sports as well as other leaders and stakeholders in the sports systems, both private and public.
The most important goal of the Directorate General of Youth and Sports is to provide that citizens of all ages engage in sports for the development of their physical and mental health. Furthermore, handicapped citizens are supported and encouraged by the state to engage in sports and to participate in sports activities.
The most important organization providing services in the field of sports, other than the Directorate General of Youth and Sports, is the Turkish National Olympic Committee. Furthermore, the Confederation of Turkish Amateur Sports Clubs, and numerous associations and foundations are among voluntary sports organizations.
A profile of sports clubs information states that the organizations both private and public stress mass participation in sports, on the fields and in the seats for the sake of personal and cultural development. “The perception of mass sports and widespread sports is accepted as the most important component for the development of competitive sports in Turkey.”
Those who are engaged in performance sports in Turkey participate in the sports activities within the structure of the 6,169 Sports Clubs. Galatasaray, Fenerbahce, Be-ikta?, Efes Pilsen, ulker, Eczac-ba?
, Vak-fbank, Tofa?, Enka, Neta? And Arcelik are among the major Sports Clubs. A great majority of the sports clubs concentrate on soccer. Furthermore, there are individually licensed athletes who do not belong to any sports club and engage in sports and participate in competitions. The number of licensed sportsmen in Turkey is 176.906.
The statistic shared above is actually a very old statistic as the current, 2008 information offered by the Directorate General of Youth and Sports at the opening of the Beijing summer Olympics noted that the actual number of licensed sportsmen is about 2.5 million and climbing.
Pointing to Turkey’s extremely young population, Atalay [Youth and Sports General Director 2008] said: “We have diversified our numbers of licensed athletes, bringing the number up to 2.5 million from around 400,000. But when you look at the general panorama in terms of our population, we still have a ways to go. Our goal is to have 10 million licensed athletes in the next decade. In fact, in a nation of 70 million, with more than half of being youth, this number should reach 20 or 30 million. When we reach these numbers, we will take our place as one of the top five nations in the Olympic Games and we will come away with the most medals of any nation.”
The national sports demographic is in fact diverse and growing daily, in turkey, which is essential to growth in marketing and support of retail sports industry outlets, of which there are many. For the most part Turkey, among all the nations in the region simply has a feeling of “sports” in the air.
Table 2 Sportsmen According to Their Branches 2006
Branches Sportsman Referee Honorary Trainer Permanent Trainer in Staff
Sports for everybody
Tae kwon do
Ski and Sliding
Resource: Samsun Provincial Presidency of Directorate General Youth and Sports
The above table shows the number of licensed sportsmen, for just the governorship of Samsun, but it representative of the demographic of many regional areas, in the nation, with the exception of the fact that locals bordering water ways and ports of call have higher numbers of water sports enthusiasts and participants.
Sports are in fact so important in Turkey that some nationally and internationally recognized businesses; consider sports sponsorship and support to be a consummate aspect of corporate social responsibility and support clubs and sports of interest to the nation, even when their actual business directives are completely different in nature. In one example of this Turk Tele Kom, a leader in telecommunications technology expresses its support for the cultural directive of personal and cultural growth by supporting and helping to train 6,000 licensed sportsmen and women who participate in volleyball.
Although soccer is the most popular sport in Turkey, basketball, volleyball, handball, track-and-field and wrestling (which is considered as the ancestral sport) are also popular. Furthermore, important international successes have been attained in weightlifting, boxing, taekwon-do, judo and archery in recent years.
A total of 1,275 medals, with 398 of them gold, were won in international competitions in the period between 1999-2000 (May). The sports branch which obtained the greatest international success was wrestling with 231 medals. Furthermore, 5 world, 14 European, 2 Balkan and 250 Turkish records were broken in five categories in 1999. Turkey obtained her first Olympic Championship with Ya-ar Erkan in wrestling at the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. Ruhi Sar-alp’s Olympic third place in triple long jump at the 1948 London Olympic Games and Mehmet Terzi’s first place in the marathon at the 1983 Mediterranean Games are great successes that were obtained in the track and field. Naim Suleymanoglu and Halil Mutlu are Turkey’s most successful athletes, who broke the world record in weightlifting and won the Olympic Championship.
Turkey’s first championship at the European Cups was the European Radivoj Korac Cup won in the 1995-1996 season by the Efes Pilsen basketball team. Efes Pilsen has also succeeded in participating in the Final-Four, held in Greece, in 2000. In 1998, Eczac-ba?
women volleyball team won the cup of the European Cup Winners and Vak-fbank women volleyball team placed second.
The involvement with Europe and the development of international competitive prowess, between Turkish teams and European teams, especially the UK will likely continue to feed the connectivity between the nations of the EU and Turkey, and further the goals of the Youth and Sports Director General through a broader venue and international recognition.
There is Deniz Gunay’s European Championship at the European Indoor Archery Championship held in Germany in 1998 and the World Championship at the World Universities Championship held in Taiwan. In boxing, Hulya ?ahin has become a first ever with her winning a gold medal at the European Boxing Cup for Women held in Sweden in 1999. The Turkish National Boxing Team, as well, winning 3 gold and 2 bronze medals, placed second at the European Boxing Championship organized in Finland in 2000. As for swimming, the national swimmer Derya Buyukuncu of Galatasaray Swimming Team, won a bronze medal at the World Short Course Swimming Championship in Athens, and became the first Turkish sportsman ever to be accorded the place of honor at a world championship. Yet, the most outstanding achievement of Turkey in the field of sports is the UEFA Championship of Galatasaray in the 1999-2000 season. Having challenged by the most powerful soccer teams of Europe, and becoming eligible for the final without losing a single match, Galatasaray, in the final, defeated the British team Arsenal 4-1 and also became the first Turkish team to win the cup. Galatasaray, which has so far had 138 matches in the European Cups, became Turkey’s envoy to the west in soccer.
To update this information, a more current source notes that the trend continues as Turkey becomes more widely recognized as a national powerhouse in competition, especially in soccer/football:
In 2000, Galatasaray cemented its role as a major European club by winning the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup. Two years later the Turkish national team finished third in the 2002 World Cup Finals in Japan and South Korea, while in 2008 the national team reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Euro 2008 competition.
The same source notes that the acceptance of soccer/football competition in accompaniment with state and private support also brings other popular sports to the international arena in Turkey
Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular. The men’s national basketball team finished second in Eurobasket 2001; while Efes Pilsen S.K. won the Korac Cup in 1996, finished second in the Saporta Cup of 1993, and made it to the Final Four of Euroleague and Suproleague in 2000 and 2001. Turkish basketball players have also been successful in the NBA. In June 2004, Mehmet Okur won the 2004 NBA Championship with the Detroit Pistons, becoming the first Turkish player to win an NBA title. Okur was selected to the Western Conference All-Star Team for the 2007 NBA All-Star Game, also becoming the first Turkish player to participate in this event. Another successful Turkish player in the NBA is Hidayet Turko-lu, who was given the NBA’s Most Improved Player Award for the 2007-2008 season, on April 28, 2008. Women’s volleyball teams such as Eczac-ba?
and Vak-fbank Gune? Sigorta have been the most successful by far in any team sport, winning numerous European championship titles and medals. The traditional Turkish national sport has been the Ya-l? gure? (Oiled Wrestling) since Ottoman times. International wrestling styles governed by FILA such as Freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular, with many European, World and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both individually and as a national team. Another major sport in which the Turks have been internationally successful is weightlifting; as Turkish weightlifters, both male and female, have broken numerous world records and won several European, World and Olympic championship titles. Naim Suleymano-lu and Halil Mutlu have achieved legendary status as one of the few weightlifters to have won three gold medals in three Olympics.
Water Sports, increased travel into Turkey, as tourism in the EU grows and Turkey is at the edge of becoming an EU Member.
Turkish expatriate returns also influence an emphasis on wide cultural breadth of sports markets. Turkish interests are even seeking ownership of major European football leagues.
Golf has also made an inroad into Turkey, over the last few years, no doubt again as a result of tourism and expatriate return.
In recent years, as golf courses with international standards have opened up, Turkey has become an elite golfing centre where players from around the world can meet in an environment of quality and prestige. Especially the area of Belek, 30km east of Antalya, is a potential for golf tourism with the unique bonus of the cultural, historical and natural sightseeing of the region. Top-class courses are also being planned for Istanbul, Ankara and Mugla. In Turkey, most courses are in the vicinity of tourist resorts, around the coastal regions which have the necessary facilities like accommodation, restaurants and entertainment. The Ministry of Tourism plans to establish other 11 golf courses in these tourist areas. You can play golf at these facilities: Gloria Golf Resort, Nobilis Golf Hotel, Klassis Golf and Country, Kemer Golf Country Club, National Golf Club, Tat Golf. And many others are on the way.
Skiing has also gained popularity in Turkey recently with much external and internal support for the relatively new sport.
Winter sports resorts in Turkey are generally located in forested mountains. The following ski centers are easily accessible by road or by Turkish Airlines domestic flights: Bursa Uludag, Antalya Saklikent, Bolu Kartalkaya, Erzurum Palandken, Kars Sarikamis, Kayseri Erciyes, Ankara Elmadag, Ilgaz Dagi, Zigana Gumushane.
Finnaly, the diversity continues with an additional market that is somewhat specific to Turkey but has enjoyed regional success historically and is now branching out to other venues and styles, the traditional 400+ year old sport of oiled wrestling.
Sports Shoes Market in Turkey
The sport shoe and apparel industry in Turkey is increasing in size and opportunity, sports are both literally and figuratively in the air in this nation. Turkey has a traditional, relatively strong foothold on the sports shoe industry, in the are of manufacture but has also been recognized by national and international brands as an emerging potentially exponential market. The number of participants in sports increases yearly, as is seen by the growth of the number of licensed sportsmen in the nation and the emphasis of the state and the culture on sports as an excellent social and cultural personal development tool. Sports clothing, in the form of sports participation and marketing is also an essential aspect of the market in Turkey.
Turkey, as a traditional shoe and athletic shoe manufacturing nation, has been traditionally in full force as the leader in domestic shoe sales in the nation. Yet, this trend is being replaced by active franchisees and multinational corporations, who are globalizing into this ripe market. The fundamentally strong nature of the manufacturing segment in Turkey could lead to greater ability of these large corporations to build and sell in the Turkish domestic market, as well as to import shoes from manufacturing locations all over the world. Currently the trend in Turkey is disturbing for the domestic Turkish market as domestic sales are being eclipsed by international market entrants. Yet, this trend is a powerful incentive to get into the market as quickly as possible, before it matures to new globalized standards, and while Turkey’s number of sportsmen continues to grow, exponentially in every popular sport genre.
Nike and internationally recognized U.S. brand, with Nike only and multi-branded locations, according to the Turkish-U.S. business council has an exclusive Turkey Division office headquarters, associated with manufacture and sales in Turkey as well as 49 Nike only locations and 300 multi-brand location in Turkey. Adidas, another leader (German) in sports shoes and apparel has 16 Adidas only and multi-brand outlets carrying Adidas gear in four major metropolitan areas in Turkey. It is also important to note that Adidas recently purchased rival Reebok’s distribution rights in Turkey, and will likely expand resulting from this shift, following the 2006 merger between the two companies.
Trends and Opportunities
The overall trend in the sports apparel and shoe industry in Turkey is continued emphasis on the strength of football/soccer enthusiasm and participation as well as continued diversification into other sports. Basketball, Volleyball, Golf, Skiing, and tennis will all continue to make strides in the number of licensed sportsmen/women as well as in participation. One interesting thought might also be the development of tourist sports such as skiing, is that many people who travel do not desire to take bulky gear with them on long flights or ocean voyages and therefore may seek out opportunities to purchase or rent gear that then demands marketed skill to provide. This is also true of golf, while domestic sports retail will also continue to grow in Turkey and globalization of marketing will continue to be the trend, allowing foreign market competitors, with or without Turkish manufacturing to sell in the nation. Multi-branding anf franchise opportunities will also likely continue to be good options for investors as brands have become increasingly dependant upon franchise joint venture investment to grow in numbers and brand recognition and to provide products for new and traditional retail markets that serve the consumer with many brand options for both the casual and serious sportsman. State investment in sports participation and enthusiasm also drives the general feeling of Turkey as a nation that is above all sports friendly and supportive of athletic endeavors, including sponsorship and resource allocation for gear. This aspect of the culture will drive diversification in the market as well as international brand recognition and therefore demand for recognized and/or presupposed leader products in the market. Finally, with international and national infrastructural growth of the internet Turkey will likely emerge as a leader in online shopping for athletic merchandise, making brand recognition and local expansion of retail stores essential to further growth.
Market Demand in Turkey will likely remain very high and grow in the future. The current climate of globalization will change the shopping experience in Turkey and lead to more diversified alternatives and products, across the board, but especially in athletic apparel and marketing opportunities. Sports, marketing even when it is not associated with sports events is a hot button reality in Turkey, as the nationalistic pride and broad acceptance of sports as a cultural necessity drives imagery and standards. As one can see from the short table, below there is plenty of room for growth in the Turkish sports gear market. Emphasis on multi-branding and traditional franchise markets will likely continue, as larger brands edge out the domestic market and new mulit-national chains such as Footlocker (1 Turkey outlet in Istanbul) and Athletes’ Foot (0 current locations in Turkey) seek to gain a hold of possible market locations for multi-brand sales.
Broad information on sporting apparel, cross over stores is not available for Turkey in every area, but the above chart includes sport and shoe sales locations that seel shoes and apparel. In Turkey, for the most part exclusive shoe stores do not sell athletic shoes, but sell high quality men’s and women’s designer dress and casual shoes, while multi-sport retail outlets sell athletic shoes. Performance shoes and apparel are available together in this market, while sports marketing apparel is available almost anywhere that casual clothing is sold. The domestic clothing market is dominant, as apposed to the athletic shoe market where global inroads are being made
Table 5: Sports Clotihng and Sports Shoes Distribution Channels in Turkey from 1998 to 2008 Market Size and market development forecast up to 2015
Table 6: Market sizes (%, and in USD) for sports shoes
Table 6 & Table 7: Market sizes (%, and in USD) for sports clothing sales
Worldwide sales of sports equipment, apparel, and footwear increased a healthy 4% to $278.4 billion (185.6 billion euros) in 2007, even as the U.S. share of the market decreased from 40% to 36%, according to a new report from the NPD Group.”
07 Sporting Goods Sales Up 3.0%; Sports Apparel Market Up 2.4%
In ’07, total manufacturers’ sales (in wholesale dollars) for the sporting goods and fitness industry in the U.S. grew at an annual rate of 3%. While down from higher growth rates in ’05 (6.8%) and ’06 (5.8%), the sporting goods industry has continued its streak of outperforming GDP for non-durable goods, which was 2.2% — according to the U.S. government in ’07. The sporting goods industry also saw stability in the sports apparel, fitness equipment and team sports markets. The following chart lists a breakdown of the sports apparel market for ’07, according to U.S. wholesale value of annual manufacturers’ shipments, with comparisons to ’06 (SGMA).”
MANUFACTURER SALES of SPORTS APPAREL
CATEGORY ’07 (MILLIONS) ’06 (MILLIONS) % +/-
TOTAL BRANDED ATHLETIC APPAREL $14,682 $14,454 1.6%
TOTAL PERFORMANCE APPAREL $1,225 $1,185 3.4% s
TOTAL FITNESS APPAREL $314 $300 4.7% s
TOTAL BRANDED ACTIVEWEAR $12,154 $11,800 3.0%
TOTAL BRANDED ATHLETIC
ACTIVE APPAREL $28,374 $27,739 2.3%
TOTAL TEAM UNIFORMS $1,127 $1,083 4.1%
TOTAL SPORTS APPAREL $29,502 $28,822 2.4%
Table 8: Product Categories by Sport in Turkey’s Sports Clothing and Sports Shoes Market
Prospective buyers for sports shoes and products in Turkey run the gambit of consumers with youth and tourists being more interested in purchasing sports gear and others seeking sports memorabilia or marketing gear. The culture of sports in Turkey will likely keep the market broad, under these terms for many years to come.
Competition Market Issues and Obstacles Import Tariffs and Taxes on Sports Clothing and Sports Shoes
Sports shoe and apparel competition, currently lies among the larger providers but mainly from domestic Turkish manufacturers with retail outlets in Turkey in established retail locations. Super store, franchise multi-brand sales are likely to do the best if introduced into the current market. Taxes and tarrifs will also limit import sales as such issues often do, and as the pressures upon communities grow as a result of globalization, potential lost jobs and domestic sales these restrictions may increase, as has been seen in other markets. The U.S. currently has no free trade agreement with Turkey, unlike the EU states who enjoy the benefits of Turkey’s desired membership into the EU states.
Taxes and Other Import Fees
The tax system in Turkey is currently in a period of flux as the system is revamped to meet the demands of EU membership. This makes it very important to deal with and assess tax issues on a frequent basis, as business owner. Employing a local tax accountant and/or assessor with current knowledge of the local system, is essential to success as is understanding fully through broker representation what tariffs will be assessed what products and when such is expected to be paid.
The most effective way to enter the Turkish market in shoes and sports apparel would be to invest in a franchise that sells a multi-brand unit system, a big box sports store of sorts. Though other alternatives exist such as street fairs, outdoor markets, trade fairs and the like such events tend to be focused on local and domestic market sales and businesses, while new westernized shopping centers cater to foreign business. A full country and regional market analysis is essential as is zoning prices and products to the specific area of entry. Local distributors may more aggressively seek international franchise and multi-brand investment in the near future, but are currently seeking foreign or export sales, and retain their own market share of retail sales, where such already exists. International distributors, especially China and India are also always seeking distribution points in emerging markets, such as Turkey. Marketing on television is aggressive and competitive in Turkey as many regions see excessive advertisements involving sports imagery, regardless of the nature of the actual product, for this reason brand development through print and public ads are essential to success of any nature.
Turkey has a diverse population who all seem to be interest in sports with a highly effective state supported sports system, both private and public. All people in Turkey and subsequently Turkey’s visitors feel the sports vibe when they visit the nation and the result is an active and potentially exponential emerging global market for sports shoes and apparel. Currently the transitions that are occurring in the nation to attempt to come into line with EU membership are altering the manner in which business has been done traditionally in Turkey as are other globalizing factors in business. The large sports companies are already jumping on the Turkey bandwagon and entrants must seek similar models, such as multi-branding franchise opportunities to enter the market in the modernized westernized centers. Competition between domestic and international players will likely intensify over the next few years and could cause a backlash, but currently the iron is hot for investing in and entering the market in Turkey in this niche.
Adidas Website Store Finder “Turkey” http://www.adidas.com/campaigns/adidasretailfinder/Storefinder/index.asp?strCountry_adidascom=ae&strLanguage_adidascom=ae&strBrand_adidascom=performance
AFX News Limited January, 12, 2007, “Adidas buys Reebok distribution rights in Turkey” http://www.forbes.com/afxnewslimited/feeds/afx/2007/01/12/afx3323950.html
Alibaba.com Global Trade Site Search Terms Turkey, Sports Shoes
Aras, Bulent. “Turkish Foreign Policy and Jerusalem: Toward a Societal Construction of Foreign Policy.” Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 22, no. 4 (2000): 31. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001194734.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000452868
Aulakh, Preet S., Masaaki Kotabe, and Arvind Sahay. “Trust and Performance in Cross-Border Marketing Partnerships: A Behavioral Approach.” Journal of International Business Studies 27, no. 5 (1996): 1005+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000452868.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=52272246
Barsoumian, Hagop. “9 the Dual Role of the Armenian Amira Class within the Ottoman Government and the Armenian Millet (1750-1850),” in Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society. Edited by Braude, Benjamin and Bernard Lewis, 171-180. New York: Homes & Meier Publishers, 1982. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=52272427.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
In the Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagasse, Paul. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=112893883.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111676293
Deardorff, Donald L. Sports: A Reference Guide and Critical Commentary, 1980-1999. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111676293.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009141018
Doane, Deborah. “Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility: Minnows, Mammoths and Markets.” Futures 37, no. 2-3 (2005): 215+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009141018.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009598394
Drakes, Sean. “She’s Got Game: Sports Agent Sharon Creer.” Black Enterprise, April 2005, 58. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009598394.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
EU Needs to Say ‘Yes’ to Turkey.” The Washington Times, 29 September 2005, A22. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011143677.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Football: Dejan Stefanovic Blatter Comments about Violence Anger Turkish FA.” Daily Post (Liverpool, England), 18 November 2005, 38. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011458074.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Football: REVEALED the Turkish Tycoons Trying to Take over at Craven Cottage.” The Mirror (London, England) (2004): 50. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007363825.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106961410
Gerrard, Bill. “3 Still Up for Grabs? Maintaining the Sporting and Financial Viability of European Club Soccer,” in International Sports Economics Comparisons. Edited by Fort, Rodney and John Fizel, 39-59. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106961471.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107381983
Goffman, Daniel. The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107382189.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Greene, Molly. “The Ottoman Experience.” Daedalus 134.2 (2005): 88.
Hale, William, and Gamze Avc
“4 Turkey and the European Union: the Long Road to Membership,” in Turkey in World Politics: An Emerging Multiregional Power. Edited by Rubin, Barry and Kemal Kiri-sci, 31-44. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107378613.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Heper, Metin. “The Ottoman Legacy and Turkish Politics.” Journal of International Affairs 54.1 (2000): 63.
Howe, Marvine. Turkey Today: A Nation Divided over Islam’s Revival. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7487426.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106961410
Fort, Rodney and John Fizel, eds. International Sports Economics Comparisons. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106961412.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014492275
Johnson, Robert. “The Decline of the Ottoman Empire, C. 1798-1913: Robert Johnson Puts the Decline of a Once-Great Empire into an International Context.” History Review, no. 52 (2005): 3+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014492275.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109269520
Karpat, Kemal H. Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays. Boston: Brill, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109269522.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5004904086
King, Sarah Whitfield. “Holiday 2000: TURKEY the Delights of Turkey; Check out the Top Resorts Waiting for You This Summer.” Sunday Mirror (London, England), 9 January 2000, 40. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5004904086.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009936934
Koca, Canan, F. Hulya Asci, and Giyasettin Demirhan. “Attitudes toward Physical Education and Class Preferences of Turkish Adolescents in Terms of School Gender Composition.” Adolescence 40, no. 158 (2005): 365+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009936934.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001153224
Kutschera, Chris. “A World Apart.” The Middle East, February 2000, 21. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001153224.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5003426155
Mcleod, Angus. “TURKISH BATHS; HOT to TROT: Live like a Millionaire in the Sun.” Daily Record (Glasgow, Scotland), 30 August 1997, 43. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5003426155.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000771960
Mohammadi, Kamin. “Spin City: The Ancient Turkish Town of Konya, Once the Pearl of the Seljuk’s Empire of Rum, Is the Home of the Famous Whirling Dervishes, Whose Mesmeric Dance Links Devotees to the Revolution of the Universe.” Geographical, June 2002, 84+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000771960.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Place in the Sun. Welsh Sports Stars Queueing Up for Holiday Homes.” Wales on Sunday (Cardiff, Wales), 4 May 2008, 18. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026938690.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Republic of Turkey Governorship of Samsun the City of Ataturk. “Youth and Sports.” http://english.samsun.gov.tr/sy_genclik.asp#1_2 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101155223
Sicker, Martin. The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101155244.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100998102
Thackeray, Frank W., John E. Findling, and Douglas a. Howard. The History of Turkey. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100998104.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024401764
Toktas, Sule. “Citizenship and Migration from Turkey to Israel: A Comparative Study on Turkish Jews in Israel.” East European Quarterly 41, no. 2 (2007): 117+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024401764.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Turkey Invests in Culture, Sport and Conferences.” The Middle East, October 2000, 46. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001099881.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Turkish Delight for Young Runners; LONDON SPORT ROUNDUP.” The Evening Standard (London, England), 26 September 2006, 43. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017226560.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
A ahin, Haluk, and Asu Aksoy. “Global Media and Cultural Identity in Turkey.” Journal of Communication 43, no. 2 (1993): 31-41. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96471321.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Sports in Turkey enjoyturkey.com http://www.enjoyturkey.com/info/culture/Sports.htm
Textile Fashion News Fibre2Fashion. (April 14, 2006) Turkey: Imported Footwear Set to Crack Local Footwear Market. http://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/daily-textile-industries-news/newsdetails.aspx?news_id=15643
TTK Website “Social Responsabilty: Sports http://www.turktelekom.com.tr/tt/portal/About-TT/Social-Responsibilty/Sports/
Turhan, Filiz. The Other Empire: British Romantic Writings about the Ottoman Empire. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Turnbull, Stephen. The Ottoman Empire, 1326-1699. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Turkey Invests in Culture, Sport and Conferences.” The Middle East, October 2000, 46. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001099881.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002365818
Williams, Patricia J. “Circus Maximus.” The Nation, 16 October 2000, 9. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002365818.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008.
Weiker, Walter F. The Modernization of Turkey: From Ataturk to the Present Day. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981. Book online. Available from Questia,
WORLDTRAVELL: Sailing into Adventure for Grown-Up Action; Bored of Sitting on a Beach? Then Join the Fashion Trend for Action Holidays in Turkey.” The Birmingham Post (England), 5 August 2006, 55. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015941652.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000434882
Yildirim, Ali. “Gender Role Influences on Turkish Adolescents’ Self-Identity.” Adolescence 32, no. 125 (1997): 217+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000434882.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=43183347.Internet. Accessed 9 September 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=43183347
Walter F. Weiker, the Modernization of Turkey: From Ataturk to the Present Day [book online] (New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981, accessed 9 September 2008), 3; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=43183347;Internet. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107382189
Daniel Goffman, the Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe [book online] (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002, accessed 9 September 2008), 181; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107382189;Internet. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101155244
Martin Sicker, the Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire [book online] (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001, accessed 9 September 2008), 10; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101155244;Internet. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=52272427
Hagop Barsoumian, “9 the Dual Role of the Armenian Amira Class within the Ottoman Government and the Armenian Millet (1750-1850),” in Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society, eds. Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis [book online] (New York: Homes & Meier Publishers, 1982, accessed 9 September 2008), 174; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=52272427;Internet. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107382189
Daniel Goffman, the Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe [book online] (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002, accessed 9 September 2008), 183; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107382189;Internet. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014492275
Robert Johnson, “The Decline of the Ottoman Empire, C. 1798-1913: Robert Johnson Puts the Decline of a Once-Great Empire into an International Context,” History Review, no. 52 (2005) [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014492275;Internet; accessed 9 September 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014492275
Robert Johnson, “The Decline of the Ottoman Empire, C. 1798-1913: Robert Johnson Puts the Decline of a Once-Great Empire into an International Context,” History Review, no. 52 (2005) [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014492275;Internet; accessed 9 September 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107378613
William Hale, and Gamze Avc
“4 Turkey and the European Union: the Long Road to Membership,” in Turkey in World Politics: An Emerging Multiregional Power, eds. Barry Rubin and Kemal Kiri-sci [book online] (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001, accessed 9 September 2008), 35; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107378613;Internet. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011143677
EU Needs to Say ‘Yes’ to Turkey,” the Washington Times, 29 September 2005, A22 [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011143677;Internet; accessed 9 September 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001099881
Turkey Invests in Culture, Sport and Conferences,” the Middle East, October 2000, 46 [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001099881;Internet; accessed 9 September 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=43183418
Walter F. Weiker, the Modernization of Turkey: From Ataturk to the Present Day [book online] (New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981, accessed 9 September 2008), 74; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=43183418;Internet. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=43183418
Walter F. Weiker, the Modernization of Turkey: From Ataturk to the Present Day [book online] (New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981, accessed 9 September 2008), 74; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=43183418;Internet.
Alibaba.com Global Trade Site Search Terms Turkey, Sports Shoes
Bill Gerrard, “3 Still Up for Grabs? Maintaining the Sporting and Financial Viability of European Club Soccer,” in International Sports Economics Comparisons, eds. Rodney Fort and John Fizel [book online] (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004, accessed 27 August 2008), 50; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106961471;Internet.
Sports in Turkey enjoyturkey.com http://www.enjoyturkey.com/info/culture/Sports.htm
Republic of Turkey Governorship of Samsun the City of Ataturk. “Youth and Sports.” http://english.samsun.gov.tr/sy_genclik.asp#1_2
TTK Website “Social Responsabilty: Sports http://www.turktelekom.com.tr/tt/portal/About-TT/Social-Responsibilty/Sports/
Sports in Turkey enjoyturkey.com http://www.enjoyturkey.com/info/culture/Sports.htm
Football: REVEALED the Turkish Tycoons Trying to Take over at Craven Cottage,” the Mirror (London, England) (2004): 50 [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007363825;Internet; accessed 27 August 2008.
Republic of Turkey “Culture and Sports” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey#cite_note-125
Angus Mcleod, “TURKISH BATHS; HOT to TROT: Live like a Millionaire in the Sun,” Daily Record (Glasgow, Scotland), 30 August 1997, 43 [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5003426155;Internet; accessed 27 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007363825
Football: REVEALED the Turkish Tycoons Trying to Take over at Craven Cottage,” the Mirror (London, England) (2004): 50 [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007363825;Internet; accessed 27 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=112893883
The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v.”Wrestling” [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=112893883;Internet; accessed 27 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=112893883
The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v.”Wrestling” [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=112893883;Internet; accessed 27 August 2008.
Alibaba.com Global Trade Site Search Terms Turkey, Sports Shoes
Textile Fashion News Fibre2Fashion. (April 14, 2006) Turkey: Imported Footwear Set to Crack Local Footwear Market. http://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/daily-textile-industries-news/newsdetails.aspx?news_id=15643
DEIK/TAIK Turkish- U.S. Business Council “Exclusive TAIK Interview with GM of Nike, Mr. Zafer Parlar” http://www.turkey-now.org/default.aspx?pgID=370
Adidas Website Store Finder “Turkey http://www.adidas.com/campaigns/adidasretailfinder/Storefinder/index.asp?strCountry_adidascom=ae&strLanguage_adidascom=ae&strBrand_adidascom=performance
AFX News Limited January, 12, 2007, “Adidas buys Reebok distribution rights in Turkey http://www.forbes.com/afxnewslimited/feeds/afx/2007/01/12/afx3323950.html
Sport Shoe Market Graph by Shoe type Mother nature.com http://www.mothernature.com/Library/bookshelf/Books/43/68.cfm
August 07, 2008 Global Sport Equipment, Footwear and Apparel Market Nearing $280B
Sports Business Daily April 23, 2008 “07 Sporting Goods Sales Up 3.0%; Sports Apparel Market Up 2.4% http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/article/120302
Preet S. Aulakh, Masaaki Kotabe, and Arvind Sahay, “Trust and Performance in Cross-Border Marketing Partnerships: A Behavioral Approach,” Journal of International Business Studies 27, no. 5 (1996) [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000452868;Internet; accessed 9 September 2008.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!