Organizational Transformation: A multi-Dimensional view
Many organizational theorists have stressed is absolutely essential to have representatives from finance, accounting, marketing, and operations to redesign a company’s transformation process. No matter how strong the talent within each department, every individual sector of the company will inevitably be subject to some degree of tunnel vision. In short, every department will believe that its own field of specialty and the paradigm through which it views the current market and the company’s future is the most important one. An example of this might be a marketing department that has come up with a unique and innovative promotions opportunity, such as employee pricing, that may boost sales and satisfy the department’s data regarding demand, but costs the company too much in the long run for it meet a crucial financial ‘bottom line.’ A contrary example might be provided by an accounting department that has discovered a way to slash costs, but will eliminate certain aspects of the company’s current line of cars that are crucial to the company’s image when marketing its product. These are just two hypothetical examples of how organizational decisions regarding customer demand or pricing cannot be confined to the expertise of individuals from the department directly responsible for making specific decisions. When an entire organization is being restructured, the change must be comprehensive and holistic, not simply directed by one vocal group of people.
At GM specifically, different areas of corporate interest have often been in conflict. Although its recent financial woes with its labor unions have gotten the most press, and are exercising the most notable drain upon its resources, many auto industry analysts trace its current problems back to 1984, when former Chairman Roger Smith nearly drove the company into bankruptcy. “Back in the mid-1980s, GM failed spectacularly when it introduced an all-new line-up of mid-size coupes. They hit the market just as buyers started switching, en masse, from 2-doors to sedans and SUVs” (Einstein, 2002:1). An over-emphasis on financials and operations yielded insufficient attention to marketing data about shifts in consumer buying trends. Although GM rebounded by introducing popular lines of SUVs in the 1990s, even in 2002, one auto industry analyst warned: “Once the king-of-the-automotive-hill, controlling as much as half the American marketplace, GM [has] suffered steady declines in share, margins and earnings, its plants some of the automotive world’s least efficient” (Einstein, 2002: 1). Consumers were buying fewer GM cars, and GM factories were inefficient in their standard operating procedures — both issues had to be addressed for the company to become profitable.
What conflicting objectives might you anticipate from each area?
So why do conflicting objectives between departments in an organization undergoing the same crisis ensue? Take the concept of “lead time,” or the number of months or years it takes to get a car into production once a company has frozen its basic design (Einstein, 2002:2) Operations might want to reduce this time as much as possible, but marketing might want to keep the time plan more flexible, so alterations can be made in the car’s style to reflect sudden changes in demand, like a sudden desire for smaller or more fuel-efficient cars because of a spike in gas prices. Finance and accounting departments might be pleased at the revenue saved through lead time reduction, but might also be resistant to acquiring new types of machinery to make production more efficient, for fear that such efforts may not pay off in the recent bottom line.
Thus, conflicts can occur because of three reasons:
Temporal differences in departmental focus. Marketing departments may focus on the upcoming sales figures in the next season, finance and accounting may focus on the need to show a good return on investment in the upcoming statements to shareholders. Operations may take a long-term view in terms of savings from obtaining new equipment, while accounting departments may be more wary of the projected expenditure.
Conflicting ideas about company image and mission. While financial departments may want to show how well the company is doing to company shareholders, accountants may have concerns about keeping returns ethical and compliant with regulations, even if it means showing less of a profit. Marketing department’s desires to reach out to a potentially lucrative new market may face operations obstacles.
Personality conflicts — quite simply the personality profile of employees drawn to different specialties might be quite distinct, and not altogether compatible, even if they are part of the same organization — the departments may have different organizational cultures.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a cross-functional team in redesigning a company’s transformation process?
“cross-functional team is a group of employees from various functional areas of the organization…who are all focused on a specific objective and are responsible to work as a team to improve coordination and innovation across divisions and resolve mutual problems” (Kotelnikov, 2007). By using a cross-functional team conflicts between different departments are more likely to be aired immediately, rather than result in greater problems later down the line. Also, this type of team can bring a more nuanced and multifaceted perspective to the need for an organizational transformation. The ideal of these types of teams are that they create synergy and out-of-the-box thinking by providing multiple perspectives. These teams can also be used to dismantle outmoded organizational hierarchies. Cross-functional teams can facilitate communication between branches of the company that traditionally do not have very much interaction with one another, and create a more integrated organizational atmosphere in general. GM has been criticized in the past for being excessively hierarchical and during a major organizational overhaul, creating an organization that integrates, for example, marketing analysis of consumer desires with restructuring operational functions might prevent bad decisions being made in the future by specific departments.
However, “is not easy, pulling a group of diverse individuals together to work as a team. Barriers abound, in the form of fierce territoriality, incentive systems that reward individual rather than collective achievement, and mistrust spawned by an acquisition, merger, or major internal restructuring. Yet at a time when companies are increasingly relying on cross-functional teams at every level to generate innovative ideas, it’s more crucial than ever to tap the fresh thinking that teams can provide” (Johnson, 2005).Teams are usually rewarded collectively, which can make creating a cohesive unit between individuals from different organizational difficult — the challenges of a crisis and pressure to complete a daunting task, such as a major restructuring, in a tight time frame could be counterproductive because of hostility and unfamiliarity.
Thus, the advantages of cross-functional teams are as thus:
Multiple perspectives on the same problem
New ideas through clashing multiple perspectives
Doing away with organizational hierarchies and/or outmoded ways of thinking through enhanced communication
Lack of team cohesiveness in a crisis situation
Difficulty of overcoming organizational territories
Increased risk of personality conflicts during an organizational crisis
Overall, the benefits seem to outweigh the potential disadvantages, and if territories and barriers can be overcome, the organization will emerge stronger as a result. But it must be stressed that problems must be anticipated, and not be assumed to evaporate, merely because all team members are ultimately embarked upon the same goal of positive change.
Einstein, Paul. (19 Aug 2002). “Transformation at General Motors.” Car Connection.
Retrieved 12 Jun 2007 at http://www.thecarconnection.com/Auto_News/Daily_Auto_News/Transformation_at_General_Motors.S173.A5203.html
Johnson, Lauren Keller. (21 Oct 2005). “Overcoming Barriers that Destroy Teams.”
Retrieved 12 Jun 2007 at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/5068.html
Kotelnikov, Vadim. (2007) “Cross Functional Teams.” Ten3 Business e-COACH.
1000 ventures.com Retrieved 12 Jun 2007 at http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/cross-functional_teams.html
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!