Title IX and its Impact on Male Sports within Collegiate Athletics

The topic of Title IX laws and the way it has an effect on intercollegiate athletics really interests a lot of people, especially if they have a strong background in sports. Title IX is what is considered to be a small part of the Education Amendments of 1972, Public Law No. 92-318, 86 Stat. 235 (June 23, 1972), codified at 20 U.S.C. units 1681 through 1688, U.S. lawmaking likewise acknowledged its main writer’s name as the Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act (Yiamouyiannis, 2003). It makes the point that No person in the United States will, on the foundation of sex, be omitted from contribution in, be deprived of the welfares of, or be exposed to judgment under any education activity or program that is getting some sort of federal financial funding. With that said, this paper will discuss Title IX and how it has its impact on Male Sports within Collegiate Athletics.

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Primary Law

Title IX forbids sex inequity against employees and students of educational programs and activities at both private and public organizations that are getting federal assets. Nearly every one of the universities and private colleges will need to go along with the Title IX regulations for the reason that they get federal funding by means of federal financial assistance services which are utilized by their students. This education law triumphs upon every one of the extracurricular and curricular contributions from math and dance, athletics science and medicine (Pauline, 2012).

In having passing Title IX, Congress had two goals:

1. To refrain the utilization of federal means in order back prejudiced practices.

2. To offer individual residents with actual protection in contrast to those practices.

During the year of 1975, the concluding rule of Title IX was contracted into law and comprised of requirements barring sex discrimination in athletics. The guidelines affecting to athletics need that a recipient which backers interscholastic, intercollege, intramural athletics club or shall give “equal athletic chance” for associates of both sexes (Priest, 2003).

Male Athletes

Some have the belief that the rise in athletic chance for girls in high school has come at the outflow of boy’s athletics. For instance, the College Sports Council has specified, “Nationwide, there are presently 1.3 million more boys contributing in high school sports than girls. Consuming a sex allocation to impose Title IX in high school sports would put those young athletes at risk of losing their chance to produce.” (Pauline, 2012) High school contribution charges validate this entitlement. The National Federation of High School relations make the reports that in the years of 2010-11, there were 4,500,406 boys and 3,200,549 girls contributing in athletics at the high school (Priest, 2003).

There are some people that continue to challenge Title IX’s application to high school athletics. For instance, the American Sports Council at one time sued the Department of Education looking for a declaratory decision where the policy is actually construing Title IX’s obligation for fairness in contribution chances is incomplete to universities and colleges (Staurowsky, 2007). Attorney Joshua Thompson, who was the American Sports Council made the point that “The three-part test and its reassurance of measures, does not have any significance to high schools or high-school sporting. There is not any interpretation or federal regulation that has ever said that high schools are an organization that would have to stand by the sex-based quota system and the fostering of the three-part test “(Reisch, 2005). Instead, the Department of Education has been insisting that Title IX is a “cherished device” for guaranteeing a level playing field for all students” and “plays a serious person in safeguarding an important level of impartiality in America’s universities and schools.” (Walton, 2003).

Concerning college athletics, the research does show “among 1981 and 1999 university athletic subdivisions cut 60 men’s gymnastics teams, 84 men’s tennis teams, 181 men’s wrestling teams, 27 men’s track teams, and 30 men’s swimming teams” (Priest, 2003). However statistics displaying the removal of men’s teams do not establish, as some propose, that Title IX has prolonged women’s athletic organizations at the disadvantage of the men. Even though some teams — both women’s and men’s — have been eradicated in the Title IX age, both of these sexes have been looking at the remaining rise in the amount of athletic eras that have happened over a related time era as the above quote (Reisch, 2005)and by studies counting more information that is current. (Yiamouyiannis, 2003)

Furthermore, the more applicable statistic for measuring equity has nothing to do with the amount of teams. For the reason that teams fluctuate extensively in size, it is more suitable to equate the number of total contribution opportunities that those teams allow. Such contrasts also contradict the proposal that women’s gains are coming at the expense of men’s, as the entire amount of college contribution chances has gone up for both sexes in the Title IX era, and men’s opportunities are really outnumbering women’s by a wide boundary (Priest, 2003). With a study done in 2007 in regards to the athletic occasions that occurred at NCAA institutions, Professor John Cheslock made the report that there were over 180,000 female athletic prospects that would need to be added so as to reach contribution levels relative to the female undergraduate population (Reisch, 2005). Men’s sports also receive the lion share of athletic department funds for working expenditures, scholarships, recruiting, and coaches pays (Pauline, 2012).

Relevant Cases and Amendments to the Law

Louisiana State University Case

In one particular example, Title IX was very useful in a court case which involved Louisiana State University (LSU) (Walton, 2003). In 1996, a federal court referenced Title IX in ruling that LSU dishonored the civil rights of women athletes by refusing to give money for a tournament that was supposed to be in Hawaii, previously in that year, they did give money to a men’s basketball team (Staurowsky, 2007). Ever since they had the ruling, LSU changes have been made to make it equal (Yiamouyiannis, 2003). LSU is one of merely three NCAA databases that are 100% self-subsidized and that do not receive financial aids from the university or government.

The Western Kentucky University Case

In an “uncommon” case, Title IX was summoned to validate a school’s choice to improve its football program from Division I FCS to Division I FBS (Reisch, 2005). The Western Kentucky University Board of Regents made the approval that this move that was in November 2006, to take effect in 2009 (Staurowsky, 2007). When the vote took place, WKU was supposedly out of Title IX agreement for the reason that it had an excessively large number of woman scholarship competitors. By progressing football, it augmented the proportion of male athletes that were receiving scholarship (Reisch, 2005). On the other hand, the following year, it got rid of its men’s soccer team (Walton, 2003).

More lately, the Associated Press gave out some news that was reported in May 2011 that the Department of Education was pursuing an investigation at the University of Delaware (UD) for possible sex discrimination that was going on against men, succeeding a criticism by people that were part of the school’s men’s track teams and cross country. UD had announced in January 2011 that it would be eliminating both teams at the end of the current school year (Priest, 2003).

The case, contended on Nov. 29, 1983, and then came to a decision which was on Feb. 28, 1984, and that brought a conclusion to the six-year legal odyssey that involved the Grove City College, which was a small Christian college in western Pennsylvania (Pauline, 2012). The school had come up with a dispute that involved enrolling students who had been accepting BEOG’s had made it a recipient of federal monetary aid subject to federal guidelines. Grove City College declined to complete an Assurance of Compliance with Title IX’s nondiscrimination requirements and, along with five students, pursued a law suit when the United States Department of Education — which at the time was part of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) had given out an order which put an end to financial assistance (Pauline, 2012). Experts say the following “There was never any type of prejudice involved with Grove City was there any actions to limit women’s rights on our campus. As a matter of Christian belief, we really just believed that women needed to be treated the same.” (Reisch, 2005)

In the case of Grove City College v. Bell, the ruling, which said that the law basically just applied to the particular programs that were within a school that were getting direct federal money, definitely showed major difficulties for the implementation of Title IX? This would have made it extremely hard, if not difficult, to control athletics,” Jones said, “for that reason, there is not much or no federal currency that ever goes straight to athletic services, surely not at the university and college level.” (Yiamouyiannis, 2003)

In reply, the U.S. Congress went ahead and passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988, furthermore recognized as the Grove City Bill, over a rejection by President Ronald Reagan (Priest, 2003). That rule abolished Grove City College v. Bell and then made the bill plainly obvious that if any part of a school makes the decision to accept federal aid, then every part of the school will then be subject to Title IX guidelines (Walton, 2003).

Contemporary Importance of Title IX

Research shows that the Title IX is one of the well-known civil rights achievement stories in all of education, and it really does owe a lot to the determined funding of politicians like Vice President Biden. Previously to the Title IX, in 1972, there was something like fewer than 30,000 female students that were actually participating in recreational and sports programs at NCAA member organizations. That amount has risen approximately six-fold even since that has been taking place. At the high school level, the number of girls that were contributing in athletics has risen or gone up ten-fold ever since 1972, to three million girls at the moment (Reisch, 2005).

Studies have recognized recurrently that the profits of athletics actually extend way beyond the playing field (Pauline, 2012). Athletes that are women are much more probable to graduate from school than female students who are not even playing sports at all. Research also shows that these athletes less likely to get involved with drugs, premarital sex, or become overweight. One current difficult or strict investigation study of Title IX by Wharton professor Betsey Stevenson discovered that there is somewhere up to 50% of the general increase in work among women that fall into the 25 to 34-year-old age group was because of the Title IX (Staurowsky, 2007).

However, contrary to the myth, research does show that Title IX has not been starving athletic programs for men. Ever since Title IX was passed, the amount of men’s and women’s teams have really been on the rise and actually the statistics show that number of women and men playing sports has increased. Both sexes have agreed that time has brought the everything a long way but there is still a lot of work that would need to be done. The action that people are pursing today to strengthen Title IX is just one of a sequence of stages that individuals are looking at to revive civil rights implementation. To look at one example, the Office for Civil Rights is going to increase our execution of Title IX with reverence to sexual violence and sexual harassment on college campuses (Reisch, 2005).

As President Obama has made the point, Title IX “does not even say anything in regards to sports… Title IX has the prospective to make parallel, outstanding developments in the chances that girls have in the STEM areas.” (Reisch, 2005) Those that are in favor, are trying to make sure that schools are making accessible a hard curriculum that makes sure students are prepared — irrespective of gender — for both career and college, as well as admission to science, engineering, technology, and math programs.


For quite some time, Title IX has been a source of controversy which had a lot to do with claims that the OCR’s present understanding of Title IX, and precisely its three-prong test of agreement, does not appear to be faithful any longer to the anti-discrimination language in Title IX’s text, and in its place favors against men and has sponsored to the decrease of programs for male sportspersons. (Walton, 2003)] Opponents of the three-prong test argue the fact that it basically functions as a “quota”


This law is to be recommended and really looked into by all educations systems because the Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 defends individuals from discrimination founded on sex in education activities or programs which get Federal financial help (Priest, 2003). The United States Department of Education has been keeping up an Office for Civil Rights, with around 12 police offices all over the country and a head office which is located in Washington, D.C., to enforce Title IX. This law would be recommended for the reason that activities and education programs are very much covered. Title IX covers local agencies and state that obtain ED funds. These activities include about 4,200 colleges and universities, 17,000 local school districts, and 4,000 for-profit schools in addition to museums and libraries. Furthermore included are occupational rehabilitation activities and education interventions of 50 states, the District of Columbia, and lands and properties of the United States (Pauline, 2012).

It also needs to be recommended because the Office for Civil Rights enforces Title IX. The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in ED is accountable for imposing Title IX. OCR’s duty to make sure that establishments which obtain ED funds obey with Title IX is done by means through agreement enforcement. The major enforcement activity is the study and tenacity of complaints that had been filed by individuals claiming sex discrimination. Furthermore, through agency-done through reviews of designated receivers, OCR is also capable of identifying and remedying sex discrimination which may not be spoken through grievance examinations.


It can be concluded that the Title IX has been extremely controversy for many years. Although there are some that believe that this law is not fair, it is obvious that it has had a huger impact and has been a huge help for many. Title IX has been something that has been evolving over the years. However, many believe that this rule has been more of a hurt to the men and a help to the women. Many would believe that the Title IX has actually been taking funding from the male athletic department. A lot of these departments are on the verge of closing down because of the lack of funds. It appears that Title IX benefits the female athletes more than the males and that may have a lot to do with a lot of sexual harassment cases that have involved women instead of the men.


Pauline, G. (2012). Celebrating 40 years of title IX: How far have we really come? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 83(8), 4-5,56.

Priest, L. (2003). The whole IX yards: The impact of title IX: The good, the bad and the ugly. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 12(2), 27-27.

Reisch, J.T. (2005). Compliance with title IX at kingston state university: A case study on cost allocation and ethical decision making. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(1), 81-97.

Staurowsky, E.J. (2007). Travelers on the title IX compliance highway: How are ohio’s colleges and universities faring? Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 16(2), 46-82.

Walton, T.A. (2003). Title IX: Forced to wrestle up the backside. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 23(7), 5-5.

Yiamouyiannis, A. (2003). The future of title IX: Ensuring success through proactive approaches. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 45-45.

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